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雙語對照:《平等、參與、共享:新中國殘疾人權益保障70年》白皮書
作者:天之聰教育
26/07/2019

平等、參與、共享:新中國殘疾人權益保障70年

Equality, Participation and Sharing: 70 Years of Protecting the Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in the PRC

中華人民共和國國務院新聞辦公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2019年7月

July 2019

目錄

Contents

前言

Preamble

一、殘疾人事業發展歷程

I. Development of the Cause of Persons with Disabilities

二、殘疾人權益保障機制

II. Mechanisms for the Protection of Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities

三、健康與康復

III. Health and Rehabilitation

四、特殊教育與融合教育

IV. Special Education and Inclusive Education

五、就業與創業

V. Employment and Entrepreneurship

六、基本生活與社會保障

VI. Basic Life and Social Security

七、無障礙環境建設與個人行動能力

VII。 Creating an Accessible Environment and Enabling Mobility

八、人身自由與非歧視

VIII. Personal Freedom and Non-Discrimination

九、營造良好社會環境

IX. Creating a Good Social Environment

十、對外交流與國際合作

X。 International Exchanges and Cooperation

結束語

Conclusion

前言

Preamble

殘疾人是人類大家庭的平等成員。尊重和保障殘疾人的人權和人格尊嚴,使他們能以平等的地位和均等的機會充分參與社會生活,共享物質文明和精神文明成果,是國家義不容辭的責任,也是中國特色社會主義制度的必然要求。

Persons with disabilities are equal members of the human family. It is a bounden duty of the state and an essential requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics to respect and protect their human rights and dignity, and to offer them equal opportunities to participate in social life and enjoy the fruits of the country’s material and cultural progress on an equal footing.

中國有8500萬殘疾人。新中國成立70年來,在建設中國特色社會主義偉大事業進程中,中國共產黨和中國政府本著對人民負責的精神,堅持以人民為中心,關心特殊困難群體,尊重殘疾人意愿,保障殘疾人權利,注重殘疾人的社會參與,推動殘疾人真正成為權利主體,成為經濟社會發展的參與者、貢獻者和享有者。

China now has a population of 85 million persons with disabilities. Over the 70 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, and especially in the process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government have always put the people first and provided care for the group with special difficulties. China respects the wishes of those with disabilities, protects their rights, attaches importance to their participation in social life, grants them real civil rights, and makes them participants in, contributors to, and beneficiaries of our social and economic development.

在習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想指引下,中國將殘疾人事業發展作為全面建成小康社會的重要目標,堅持政府主導與社會參與、市場推動相結合,堅持增進殘疾人福祉和促進殘疾人自強自立相結合,將殘疾人事業納入國家經濟社會發展總體規劃和國家人權行動計劃,殘疾人權益保障的體制機制不斷完善,殘疾人社會保障制度和服務體系不斷健全,殘疾人獲得感、幸福感、安全感持續提升,殘疾人事業取得舉世矚目的歷史性成就。

Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, China has included the cause of persons with disabilities in the agenda for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. It maintains that in promoting the interests of persons with disabilities the government should play the leading role, while soliciting the participation of the whole of society and giving full play to the functions of the market, and that the government should keep improving the wellbeing of those with disabilities and also encourage their self-improvement and self-reliance. By incorporating the programs of persons with disabilities in the national social and economic plan and human rights action plan, China has improved the institutions for protecting their rights and interests. It has also improved their social security and upgraded public services for them, so that they are feeling happier, safer, and more satisfied. China’s achievements in championing this cause have won recognition throughout the world.

一、殘疾人事業發展歷程

I. Development of the Cause of Persons with Disabilities

中華人民共和國成立70年來,中國從國情和實際出發,努力促進和保護殘疾人權利和尊嚴,保障殘疾人平等參與經濟、政治、社會和文化生活,走出了一條具有中國特色的殘疾人事業發展道路。

In the 70 years since it was founded, the PRC has taken into full consideration its realities and actual conditions, and developed its own strategy for protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. It has worked tirelessly to promote the rights of persons with disabilities, protect their dignity, and ensure they participate equally in the nation’s politics, economy, and social and cultural life.

殘疾人獲得平等地位。新中國成立以后,殘疾人在政治上獲得了和其他人一樣的地位,享受應有的公民權利和義務。中國政府公布實施《革命殘廢軍人優待撫恤暫行條例》等法規,對傷殘軍人等傷殘人員的休養、治療、生活、學習、工作給予特殊保障;建立福利機構和精神病院,收養或安置無依無靠的重度殘疾人、殘疾孤兒、殘疾老人、精神殘疾人和殘疾軍人;興辦了盲童學校、聾啞學校等特殊教育學校,確立了特殊教育在國民教育體系中的地位。在農村,對符合條件的失去勞動能力的殘疾人由集體經濟組織給予“五保”待遇(即保吃、保穿、保住、保醫、保葬或保教);在城市,興辦福利工廠、福利生產單位安排殘疾人就業。探索社會化管理方式,1953年成立中國盲人福利會,1956年成立中國聾啞人福利會,1960年在此基礎上成立中國盲人聾啞人協會。大部分省、自治區、直轄市也建立起地方協會和基層組織,殘疾人開始參與自身事務的管理。全國城鄉勞動就業的殘疾人增多,文化體育活動有所開展,殘疾人生活初步改善。

Equal status for persons with disabilities. After the founding of the PRC, persons with disabilities got equal status with others politically, with the same lawful rights and obligations as all other citizens. The state promulgated the Provisional Regulations on Pensions and Preferential Treatments for Service Veterans with Disabilities, giving special guarantees to disabled service veterans in terms of rehabilitation, medical treatment, and their life, education, and employment. Welfare and mental institutions were established to take in persons with severe disabilities and without family, orphans with disabilities, elderly persons with disabilities, persons with mental disabilities, and disabled servicemen. With the introduction of special education schools for children with visual and hearing impairments and speech disorders, the government included special education for persons with disabilities in the national educational system. In rural areas, eligible disabled persons without the ability to work began to be guaranteed food, clothing, housing, medical care, burial services or education by collective economic organizations. In cities, persons with disabilities were provided with jobs at welfare factories and other similar units. China explored the socialized management of the affairs of persons with disabilities, establishing the China Blind Persons’ Welfare Society in 1953, the China Deaf-mutes Welfare Society in 1956, and the China Association of the Blind and Deaf in 1960. Most provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government set up local associations and community-level organizations for persons with disabilities, who began to manage their own affairs. In both urban and rural areas, more persons with disabilities got jobs; they became more involved in cultural and sports activities, and their life began to improve.

殘疾人事業在改革開放中興起。改革開放以來,中國共產黨和中國政府實施了一系列發展殘疾人事業、改善殘疾人狀況的重大舉措。1984年成立中國殘疾人福利基金會,1987年開展第一次全國殘疾人抽樣調查,1988年成立中國殘疾人聯合會(簡稱“中國殘聯”),1991年頒布實施《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》并第一次制定實施中國殘疾人事業五年計劃綱要。進入21世紀,國家加快推進全面小康社會建設,殘疾人事業全面提升。2008年出臺《中共中央 國務院關于促進殘疾人事業發展的意見》,同年修訂《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》。殘疾人事業由改革開放初期以救濟為主的社會福利工作,逐步發展成為包括康復、教育、就業、扶貧、社會保障、維權、文化、體育、無障礙環境建設、殘疾預防等領域的綜合性社會事業。殘疾人參與社會生活的環境大為改善,殘疾人的經濟、政治、文化和社會權利得到尊重和保障;殘疾人的面貌發生根本性變化,由被動的受助者變為積極參與的主體,成為經濟社會發展的一支重要力量,在改革和發展中涌現出一大批像張海迪那樣的體現民族精神和時代風貌的優秀殘疾人。

Championing the programs of persons with disabilities since reform and opening-up. Since reform and opening up was initiated in 1978, the CPC and the Chinese government have introduced a series of major measures to champion the programs of persons with disabilities and improve their lives. These include: founding of the China Foundation for Disabled Persons in 1984, the first national sample survey on disability in 1987, founding of the China Disabled Persons’ Federation (CDPF) in 1988, and promulgation of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities and the first five-year program for China’s cause of these people in 1991. Entering the 21st century, as the country moved faster toward a moderately prosperous society, the cause of persons with disabilities also advanced in all respects. In 2008, the “Directives of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Promoting the Cause of Persons with Disabilities” was issued, and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities was revised. Promoting the interests of persons with disabilities, from being part of social welfare in the form of relief in the late 1970s and early 1980s, has evolved into an encompassing network covering rehabilitation, education, employment, poverty alleviation, social security, rights protection, culture, sports, accessible environment, and disability prevention. The environment has improved for persons with disabilities to join in social life, and their political, economic, cultural and social rights are respected and guaranteed. There has been a fundamental change in the life and work of persons with disabilities, who have evolved from recipients of relief in the past to a main body involved in relevant activities, and an important force for social and economic progress. In the course of reform and development, many persons with disabilities, for example Zhang Haidi, have become role models who embody the spirit of the Chinese nation and of the times.

殘疾人事業邁上新臺階。中共十八大以來,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央對殘疾人格外關心、格外關注。2014年、2019年習近平兩次會見全國自強模范暨助殘先進集體和個人表彰大會受表彰代表,為我國殘疾人事業發展指明方向,2014年向中國殘疾人福利基金會成立30周年發去賀信提出“殘疾人是一個特殊困難的群體,需要格外關心、格外關注”,2017年向2013-2022年亞太殘疾人十年中期審查高級別政府間會議致賀信提出“中國將進一步發展殘疾人事業,促進殘疾人全面發展和共同富裕”,2016年在河北省唐山市考察時提出“2020年全面建成小康社會,殘疾人一個也不能少”的任務目標。自中共十八大以來,殘疾人工作成為“五位一體”總體布局和“四個全面”戰略布局的重要內容。在國家層面建立起覆蓋數千萬殘疾人口,包含生活補貼、護理補貼、兒童康復補貼等內容的殘疾人專項福利制度;在全國范圍內將數百萬農村貧困殘疾人脫貧作為打贏脫貧攻堅戰的重點,精準施策、特別扶助;在實施“健康中國”戰略中高度重視和關注每個殘疾人的健康問題,加快實現“人人享有健康服務”目標;將殘疾人基本公共服務納入國家基本公共服務體系,持續推進殘疾人基本公共服務托底補短工作,不斷提高殘疾人基本公共服務供給水平;各行各業、社會各個方面都在努力消除障礙,越來越多的殘疾人接受更好教育、實現就業創業、平等參與社會。殘疾人“平等、參與、共享”的目標得到更好實現,關心幫助殘疾人的社會氛圍更加濃厚,殘疾人事業發展進入了快車道,殘疾人獲得感、幸福感、安全感持續提升,殘疾人事業整體發展水平邁上一個新臺階。

New progress in the cause of persons with disabilities. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as its core has given more care and attention to persons with disabilities. In 2014 and 2019, Xi met with representatives from model units for helping persons with disabilities, and with individual role models of self-reliance and hard work, pointing the direction for China’s work for persons with disabilities. In 2014, in his letter to congratulate the China Foundation for Disabled Persons on its 30th anniversary, Xi said that persons with disabilities were a special group in need of extra care and attention. In 2017, in his congratulatory letter to the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Midpoint Review of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities, 2013-2022, Xi said that China would continue to champion the cause of persons with disabilities, so that they could develop in an all-round way and achieve common prosperity. In 2016, during an inspection trip to Tangshan, Hebei Province, he said that in the course of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020, not a single person with disabilities should be left behind. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, work related to persons with disabilities has become an important part of the Five-point Strategy (promoting economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress) and the Four-pronged Strategy (to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, to further reform, to advance the rule of law, and to strengthen Party discipline). The state has established a special welfare system for tens of millions of persons with disabilities, including living subsidies, nursing subsidies, and subsidies for children’s rehabilitation. Persons with disabilities from poor households in rural areas, numbering in the millions, have become a focus in the final fight against poverty, and we should accurately apply policies and give them special assistance.

In the Healthy China initiative, we should pay particular attention to each individual with disabilities and make sure everyone has access to health services. Public services for persons with disabilities have been included in the national system of basic public services, and efforts will continue to provide basic public services to them, improve weaker links, and enhance service quality. As all trades and walks of life strive to eliminate barriers, more and more persons with disabilities are receiving better education, which enable them to find jobs, start businesses, and participate in social life more equally. As the whole nation works to achieve the goals of “equality, participation and sharing” for persons with disabilities, Chinese society is more readily available to care for and help them. The cause of persons with disabilities is picking up speed, and these people are enjoying a greater sense of gain, happiness, and security.

二、殘疾人權益保障機制

II. Mechanisms for the Protection of Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities

中國堅持將殘疾人事業納入國家發展戰略,加強殘疾人權益法治保障,健全殘疾人工作體制,殘疾人權益保障機制不斷完善。

China will continue to include the programs of persons with disabilities into the national development strategy, and strengthen the legal protection of their rights and interests, and improve the support system for them and the mechanisms for ensuring their rights and interests。

殘疾人事業納入國家發展戰略。自1991年開始,殘疾人事業被納入國民經濟和社會發展總體規劃,“十一五”至“十三五”國民經濟和社會發展規劃中分別設立“保障殘疾人權益”“加快殘疾人事業發展”“提升殘疾人服務保障水平”專節。國務院先后頒布7個殘疾人事業五年發展規劃,對殘疾人權益保障工作作出總體部署;發布《國務院關于加快推進殘疾人小康進程的意見》《“十三五”加快殘疾人小康進程規劃綱要》《“十三五”推進基本公共服務均等化規劃》《國家殘疾預防行動計劃(2016-2020年)》和兩期《特殊教育提升計劃》等一批專項規劃,進一步細化殘疾人事業發展的工作任務和責任清單;自2009年開始施行的三期國家人權行動計劃均規定了殘疾人權益保障的任務要求和完成指標。

Integrating the programs of persons with disabilities into the national development strategy。 Since 1991, programs of persons with disabilities have been included into the overall plan for national economic and social development。 From the 11th to the 13th Five-year plans, there have been special sections titled “protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities”, “accelerating the programs of persons with disabilities”, and “improving services to and protection of persons with disabilities” in these plans。 The State Council has released seven five-year development plans for persons with disabilities, making overall arrangements for the protection of their rights and interests。 To further define the tasks and responsibility list for the protection of persons with disabilities, China has issued “Instructions of the State Council on Accelerating the Process Toward Prosperity for Persons with Disabilities”, “Outline for Accelerating the Process Toward Prosperity for Persons with Disabilities in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, “Plan for Promoting Equal Access to Basic Public Services in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, “The National Disability Prevention Program (2016-2020)”, and two documents of “Special Education Promotion Plan”, for 2014-2016 and 2017-2020 respectively。 Launched in 2009, the three documents of the “National Human Rights Action Plan” for 2009-2010, 2011-2015, and 2016-2020 specified the tasks and goals of this mission。

殘疾人權益保障法治化。中國已形成以《中華人民共和國憲法》為核心,以《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》為主干,以《殘疾預防和殘疾人康復條例》《殘疾人教育條例》《殘疾人就業條例》《無障礙環境建設條例》等為重要支撐的殘疾人權益保障法律法規體系。截至2018年4月,直接涉及殘疾人權益保障的法律有80多部,行政法規有50多部。《中華人民共和國憲法》明確規定包括殘疾人在內的所有公民都依法享有選舉權和被選舉權,《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》規定殘疾人在經濟、政治、文化、社會和家庭生活等方面享有同其他公民平等的權利,《中華人民共和國選舉法》對殘疾人行使選舉權作出特殊規定,要求為殘疾人參加選舉提供便利。2018年,共有5000多名殘疾人、殘疾人親友和殘疾人工作者擔任縣級以上人大代表和政協委員。國家采取多種措施保障殘疾人參與公共事務的平等權利。全國人大常委會多次開展《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》實施情況的執法檢查,持續推動殘疾人合法權益保障工作不斷改進,全國政協通過開展多種形式的協商議政活動持續推進殘疾人的權益保護,最高人民法院、最高人民檢察院與中國殘聯建立協調工作機制,公安部依法嚴厲打擊侵犯殘疾人合法權益的違法犯罪行為。全國普遍開通12385殘疾人服務熱線,建成殘疾人信訪工作網上服務平臺,拓寬殘疾人利益訴求渠道。

Law-based protection of rights and interests of persons with disabilities。 A legal system is now in place in China with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China as basis, the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities as its mainstay。 It is taken to a further level of detail in the Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities, Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities, and Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment。 By April 2018, more than 80 laws and 50 administrative regulations had been passed concerning the protection of the rights and interests of persons with disabilities。

The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China explicitly specifies that all citizens, including persons with disabilities, have the right to vote and to stand for election in accordance with the law. The Law on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities provides that persons with disabilities shall enjoy the same economic, political, cultural, social and family rights as other citizens. The Electoral Law of the National People’s Congress and Local People’s Congresses contains special provisions concerning the election rights of persons with disabilities, requiring that assistance be provided to facilitate their participation in elections. In 2018, over 5,000 persons with disabilities, relatives of this group, and personnel working for them were deputies to the people’s congresses and members of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) above the county level.

The state has taken measures to ensure the equal rights of persons with disabilities to participate in public affairs. The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC) has carried out inspections on the implementation of the Law on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities to improve the protection of their lawful rights and interests. The CPPCC National Committee has held various consultative conferences for the same goal. The Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, and the CDPF have built a joint working mechanism to this end. The Ministry of Public Security has acted with resolution against illegal criminal acts infringing upon the legal rights and interests of persons with disabilities. The 12385 service hotline for persons with disabilities has been launched nationwide, and an online petition platform is also available to expand the channels for these people to express their concerns.

殘疾人公共法律服務體系優先建設。最高人民法院等九部門聯合印發《關于加強殘疾人法律救助工作的意見》,成立了殘疾人法律救助工作協調領導小組,指導地方設立殘疾人法律救助工作站。最高人民法院要求各級人民法院為殘疾人開辟綠色通道,提供優先服務;同時要求為殘疾人提供司法便民服務,為殘疾人參加庭審活動提供無障礙設施。司法部發布《關于“十三五”加強殘疾人公共法律服務的意見》,拓展了殘疾人公共法律服務領域,擴大了殘疾人法律援助范圍,加強了殘疾人刑事法律援助。截至2018年,全國設立殘疾人法律援助工作站2600余個,建成法律援助便民服務窗口2600余個,各級殘疾人聯合會(簡稱“殘聯”)建立殘疾人法律救助工作站1814個。2014年至2018年,共為31.2萬殘疾人提供法律援助,法律援助機構組織為殘疾人提供法律咨詢共計124.2萬人次。

Prioritizing a public legal service system for persons with disabilities. The Supreme People’s Court and eight other departments have jointly issued the “Directives on Strengthening Legal Aid for Persons with Disabilities”, and set up a leading group to guide local departments in building legal aid centers. The Supreme People’s Court requires that people’s courts at all levels open up green channels for persons with disabilities, give them priority, provide them with convenient legal services, and create barrier-free facilities in courts. The Ministry of Justice released the “Directives on Improving Public Legal Services for Persons with Disabilities in the 13th Five-year Plan Period” to expand the scope of these services, including legal aid, and to strengthen criminal legal aid for these people.

By 2018, more than 2,600 legal aid centers and more than 2,600 service windows for persons with disabilities had been set up across the nation。 And 1,814 legal aid stations had been built by disabled persons’ federations at all levels。 From 2014 to 2018, a total of 312,000 persons with disabilities benefited from legal aid services, and 1,242,000 received legal advice from legal aid organizations。

殘疾人工作體制逐步健全。在推進殘疾人事業的工作實踐中,形成了黨委領導、政府負責、社會參與、殘疾人組織充分發揮作用的中國殘疾人工作體制。2008年3月發布《中共中央 國務院關于促進殘疾人事業發展的意見》,明確了殘疾人事業發展的總體要求。成立由34個部委和機構負責人組成的國務院殘疾人工作委員會(簡稱“國務院殘工委”),協調國務院有關殘疾人事業方針、政策、法規、規劃的制定與實施,解決殘疾人工作中的重大問題。國務院殘工委各成員單位按照部門分工履行殘疾人事業有關職責,推動有關殘疾人政策的制定與落實。全國縣級以上人民政府均成立了殘疾人工作委員會。中國殘聯及地方各級殘聯充分發揮代表、服務、管理職能,成為黨和政府聯系殘疾人的橋梁和紐帶。工會、共青團、婦聯等人民團體和老齡協會等社會組織發揮各自優勢,維護殘疾職工、殘疾青年、殘疾婦女、殘疾兒童和殘疾老人的合法權益。紅十字會、慈善會、殘疾人福利基金會等慈善組織為殘疾人事業籌集善款,開展愛心捐助活動。企事業單位承擔社會責任,為殘疾人事業發展貢獻力量。

Improving the support system for persons with disabilities. To provide better protection to persons with disabilities, we have formed a support system in which the CPC Party committees take the lead, the government takes responsibilities, the public gives support, and disabled persons’ organizations play an important role. In March 2008, the “Directives of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Promoting the Cause of Persons with Disabilities” was released, which stipulates the general requirements for this work. The State Council Working Committee on Disability was set up by leaders from 34 ministries, departments and organizations to coordinate the formulation and implementation of guidelines, policies, regulations and programs made by the State Council in relation to persons with disabilities, and to address major problems in this regard. The member units of this committee are assigned duties to meet this goal.

The people’s governments above the county level have set up their own committees to develop programs of persons with disabilities。 As the bridge and the bond between the Party, the government, and persons with disabilities, the CDPF and its local branches employ to the full their capacity to represent, manage and serve the interests of this group。 The Labor Union, the Communist Youth League, the Women’s Federation, and the Association for the Elderly apply their strength to safeguard the lawful rights and interests of workers, youth, women, children and the elderly with disabilities。 The Red Cross Society, Charity Society, and China Foundation for Disabled Persons help to raise money and collect donations for those with disabilities。 Enterprises and public institutions shoulder their responsibilities to play their part in helping these people。

殘疾人組織得到充分發展。中國殘聯是國家法律確認、國務院批準的由殘疾人及其親友和殘疾人工作者組成的人民團體,它代表殘疾人共同利益,維護殘疾人合法權益;團結幫助殘疾人,為殘疾人服務;履行法律賦予的職責,承擔政府委托的任務,管理和發展殘疾人事業。中國殘聯的最高權力機構是全國代表大會,每五年舉行一次。截至2018年,全國(除新疆生產建設兵團、黑龍江墾區外)共成立殘聯組織4。2萬個。中國殘聯領導盲人協會、聾人協會、肢殘人協會、智力殘疾人及親友協會、精神殘疾人及親友協會等專門協會。截至2018年,全國共建立省、地(市)、縣三級五類殘疾人專門協會1。6萬個。

Full development of disabled persons’ federations. The CDPF is a legitimate organization approved by the State Council. It is composed of persons with disabilities, their relatives, and personnel working for them. It represents and safeguards the legitimate rights and interests of persons with disabilities, and aims to unite, help and serve them. It performs duties assigned by law, undertakes tasks entrusted by the government, and manages and develops programs of persons with disabilities. The highest authority of the CDPF is the National Congress, which is held every five years. By 2018, a total of 42,000 disabled persons’ federations had been set up across the nation (with the exception of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps and Heilongjiang Reclamation Area). The CDPF takes leadership over the China Association of Persons with Visual Disabilities, the China Association of Persons with Hearing Disabilities, the China Association of Persons with Physical Disabilities, the China Association of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Relatives, and the China Association of Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities and Their Relatives. By 2018, a total of 16,000 branches of these associations at provincial, prefectural (municipal) and county levels were in place.

殘疾人數據收集和統計機制不斷完善。加強殘疾人事業統計調查,規范和完善殘疾人權益保障的統計指標,實現殘疾人權益保障精細化管理、精準化服務。逐步建立國家和省(區、市)殘疾人狀況監測體系,制定統計監測指標體系,建立各地區各部門綜合統計報表和定期報送審評制度。1987年和2006年開展了兩次全國殘疾人抽樣調查,掌握了殘疾人及其人權保障的基本狀況。自2015年開始,每年開展全國殘疾人基本服務狀況和需求調查,統計全國殘疾人的基本服務狀況、需求信息以及社區殘疾人基本公共服務狀況信息,建立殘疾人基礎數據庫,實現與政府有關部門數據共享。2018年收集全國3308萬持有中華人民共和國殘疾人證的殘疾人基本服務狀況和需求的動態信息,以及近69萬個村(社區)的殘疾人服務設施狀況信息。

Improving data collection and census mechanisms for persons with disabilities。 In order to optimize management and fine-tune services, China has strengthened processes for gathering data on persons with disabilities, and for regulating and improving the statistical indicators for the protection of their rights and interests。 It has established systems for monitoring disability at the national and provincial levels, for gathering data and monitoring indicators, and for collecting comprehensive statistical forms from all departments and all regions and having them submitted regularly to higher-level authorities for review。 Two national surveys on disability in 1987 and 2006 gave us a clearer picture of this group and of the protection of their human rights。 Since 2015, surveys have been carried out on their basic services and demands, and on public services available to them at the community level。 Databases have been built, and data shared among relevant departments of the government。 In 2018, dynamic information on the services accessible to and demands of 33。08 million persons with disability certificates, and information on service facilities for persons with disabilities in 690,000 villages (communities) was gathered。

殘疾人事業財政支持大幅增長。“十一五”期間全國殘聯系統用于殘疾人事業發展的財政資金為573。59億元,“十二五”期間財政資金投入1451。24億元,比“十一五”期間增長153%。2016年,全國殘聯系統用于“十三五”期間殘疾人事業發展的財政資金共計416。69億元,比“十二五”同期(2011年)增加241。54億元,增長138%。2013年至2017年各級財政專門用于殘疾人事業的資金投入超過1800億元,比上一個五年增長123%。2018年已竣工殘疾人服務設施達到4069個。

A marked increase in financial support to programs of persons with disabilities。

Disabled persons’ federations across the nation spent RMB57。36 billion on programs for helping these people during the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010)。

The figure grew to RMB145.12 billion during the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), an increase of 153 percent.

The investment was RMB41。67 billion in 2016, the first year of the 13th Five-year Plan period (2016-2020), an increase of RMB24。15 billion, or 138 percent, compared with the first year (2011) during the 12th Five-year Plan period。

From 2013 to 2017, the fiscal allocations from all levels of the government for persons with disabilities added up to over RMB180 billion, up by 123 percent over the prior five years.

In 2018, 4,069 service facilities were in place.

三、健康與康復

III。 Health and Rehabilitation

中國高度重視殘疾人健康權利保障,全面開展殘疾預防,大力推進康復服務,努力實現殘疾人“人人享有康復服務”的目標。

China attaches great importance to ensuring the right to health for persons with disabilities。 It makes comprehensive efforts in preventing disability, and works hard to improve rehabilitation services, in pursuit of the goal that “everyone in need has access to rehabilitation services。”

殘疾人健康保障政策務實全面。《“健康中國2030”規劃綱要》《“十三五”衛生與健康規劃》《“十三五”深化醫藥衛生體制改革規劃》等對維護殘疾人健康、加強基層醫療康復能力建設等提出明確要求。《殘疾預防和殘疾人康復條例》頒布實施。建立重度殘疾人護理補貼制度,向殘疾人提供殘疾特需醫療衛生服務,將殘疾人作為家庭醫生簽約服務的優先對象,鼓勵各地將基本康復服務納入個性化簽約范圍。運動療法等29項醫療康復項目納入基本醫療保險支付范圍。自20世紀90年代以來,中國政府和社會各界出資,對白內障患者開展手術治療,累計使1000余萬人復明。特別關注農村貧困殘疾人醫療衛生服務狀況,制定發布《關于實施健康扶貧工程的指導意見》《健康扶貧工程“三個一批”行動計劃》《著力解決因殘致貧家庭突出困難的實施方案》和《醫療保障扶貧三年行動實施方案(2018-2020年)》,將農村貧困殘疾人納入基本醫保、大病保險、醫療救助范圍,充分發揮三項制度綜合保障作用,切實提高建檔立卡貧困殘疾人醫療保障受益水平,加強縣級殘疾人康復服務中心建設,提升基層康復服務能力,建立醫療機構與殘疾人專業康復機構協調配合的工作機制。

Policies for ensuring health services for people with disabilities are pragmatic and comprehensive。 The “Outline of Healthy China 2030”, the “Plan for Health in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, and the “Plan for Deepening Medical and Healthcare Reform in the 13th Five-year Plan Period” have raised explicit requirements for ensuring healthcare for persons with disabilities, and improving the ability of community-level institutions to deliver medical and rehabilitation services。 The Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities have been enacted and implemented。 A subsidy system for nursing persons with severe disabilities has been established。 Persons with disabilities are provided with special medical services, and they are also priority targets in family doctors’ contracting services。 Local governments are encouraged to incorporate basic rehabilitation services into personalized contracts with family doctors。 Exercise therapy and 28 other medical rehabilitation items are covered by basic medical insurance。 Since the 1990s, the Chinese government and various sectors of the society have funded surgeries for cataract patients, and more than 10 million people have recovered eyesight through this campaign。

Special attention has been paid to medical and healthcare services for impoverished people with disabilities in rural areas。 The government has issued the “Guiding Opinions on Programs of Poverty Alleviation Through Healthcare”, “Action Plan for Three Groups of People in Programs of Poverty Alleviation Through Healthcare”, “Implementation Plan for Addressing the Difficulties of Poor Households Caused by Disabilities”, and the “Three-year Action Plan for Poverty Alleviation Through Medical Security (2018-2020)”。 In rural areas, poor people with disabilities are now covered by basic medical insurance, serious disease insurance, and medical assistance, all of which play an effective role in securing comprehensive healthcare for them。 Medical insurance benefits for registered poor people with disabilities have been improved。 More efforts have been made to build county-level rehabilitation service centers for persons with disabilities, with the goal of improving the capabilities of community-level institutions in providing rehabilitation services。 A working mechanism has been established to coordinate medical institutions and professional rehabilitation institutions for persons with disabilities。

殘疾預防工作取得積極成效。制定發布《國家殘疾預防行動計劃(2016-2020年)》,采取有效措施減少和控制殘疾發生。在全國開展殘疾預防綜合試驗區試點工作,探索完善殘疾篩查、評定、報告及干預一體化工作機制。實施國家免疫規劃,加強婚前孕前健康檢查、孕產婦產前篩查診斷以及新生兒和兒童殘疾篩查。制定《0-6歲兒童殘疾篩查工作規范(試行)》,實現5類兒童殘疾的早篩早診早治。加強傳染病、地方病、慢性病等疾病防治,實施食鹽加碘、增補葉酸等重點預防工程,基本消除了脊髓灰質炎、碘缺乏病等致殘因素。加強安全舉措,減少意外傷害致殘因素。科技部積極推進殘疾預防技術攻關,通過“生殖健康及重大出生缺陷防控研究”和“重大慢性非傳染性疾病防控研究”重點專項,部署開展出生缺陷防控和主要致殘性重大慢性疾病防控技術研究,有效減少因病致殘的發生。2017年國務院正式批準將每年8月25日設立為“殘疾預防日”,在“殘疾預防日”、愛耳日、防治碘缺乏病日、愛眼日、預防出生缺陷日、精神衛生日等節點開展宣傳活動,提高公眾殘疾預防意識。截至2016年,全國共為8091萬名農村圍孕期婦女提供免費補服葉酸服務,為97。8萬對夫婦免費提供地中海貧血篩查服務,為469萬名新生兒提供免費先天性疾病篩查。

Positive results have been achieved in preventing disability。 The “National Disability Prevention Action Plan (2016-2020)” has been promulgated, by which effective measures are being taken to reduce and control the occurrence of disabilities。 Pilot work on comprehensive disability prevention has been carried out around China to improve the integrated mechanism for disability screening, assessment, report and intervention。 The national immunization program has been implemented, and pre-marriage and pre-pregnancy health checks, maternal prenatal screening and tests, and screening for newborns and children with disabilities have been strengthened。 The Specifications for Disability Screening for Children Aged 0-6 Years (Trial) has been formulated to realize early screening and treatment of children with five types of disability。 More efforts have been made in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, endemic diseases, and chronic diseases, with a focus on key prevention projects such as salt iodization and folic acid supplementation。 These have basically eliminated poliomyelitis and iodine deficiency disorders, and other causes for disabilities。 Safety measures have been strengthened to reduce accidental injuries that cause disabilities。

The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) actively pursues breakthroughs in disability prevention technologies. Through two key programs – “reproductive health and prevention and control of major birth defects” and “prevention and control of major non-communicable chronic diseases” – the MOST has planned and conducted prevention and control of birth defects and technical research on the prevention and control of major chronic diseases that will lead to disabilities, effectively reducing the occurrence of disabilities caused by illnesses. In 2017, the State Council officially designated August 25 as the Disability Prevention Day. Promotional activities to raise public awareness of disability prevention have been carried out on Disability Prevention Day, Ear Care Day (March 3), Global Iodine Deficiency Disorders Prevention Day (October 21), National Eye Care Day (June 6), World Birth Defects Day (March 3), and World Mental Health Day (October 10).

As of 2016, the Chinese government had provided free folic acid to 81 million rural perinatal women, free thalassemia screening for 978,000 couples, and free congenital disease screening for 4。69 million newborns。

殘疾人康復條件逐步完善。殘疾人康復機構從無到有,專業隊伍建設不斷加強,工作體系、業務格局、運行機制逐步建立,服務能力日益提高。截至2018年,全國已竣工的省、市、縣三級康復設施914個,總建筑面積344.9萬平方米;全國殘疾人專業康復服務機構9036個,在崗人員25萬人,2750個縣(市、區)開展社區康復服務。康復工作內容由三項搶救性康復項目發展成為覆蓋多學科領域、滿足各類別殘疾人需要、預防與康復并重的服務體系。2018年,全國621所中等、高等職業技術學校和普通本專科院校開設康復專業,畢業生人數為29334人。為進一步加強康復專業人才培養,建設中國康復大學已納入“十三五”規劃和《“十三五”加快殘疾人小康進程規劃綱要》,籌建工作正式啟動。大力開展社區康復服務,提升社區康復能力。截至2018年,開展社區康復服務的市轄區為1001個,縣(市)為1749個,有社區康復協調員47.8萬人。建立殘疾兒童康復救助制度,為殘疾兒童接受基本康復救助提供制度性保障。全國9個省(區、市)建立了殘疾人輔助器具補貼制度,減輕了殘疾人家庭經濟負擔。實施殘疾人精準康復服務行動,為殘疾兒童和持證殘疾人提供康復醫療、康復訓練、支持性服務、輔助器具適配等基本康復服務。科技部著力推進助殘、惠殘產品研發,通過“主動健康和老齡化科技應對”和“生物醫用材料研發與組織器官修復替代”重點專項,部署開展康復輔助器具、人工組織器官修復材料等研發。完善工傷康復制度,提高傷殘撫恤標準。2006年至2016年,2178.1萬殘疾人次得到不同程度康復。2018年,1074.7萬名殘疾兒童及持證殘疾人得到基本康復服務,殘疾人康復服務覆蓋率達到79.8%。

Rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities have gradually improved. Starting from scratch, rehabilitation institutions for persons with disabilities have developed a team of professionals, established a work system, business structure and operational mechanism, and improved their service capabilities. By 2018, 914 rehabilitation facilities at provincial, municipal and county levels had been completed, with a total floor area of 3.4 million sq m. There were 9,036 rehabilitation institutions for persons with disabilities, which employed 250,000 people, and 2,750 counties (cities or districts) offered community rehabilitation services. Rehabilitation institutions, which used to provide services only for cataract patients, post-polio patients, and hearing-impaired children, have evolved into to a multi-disciplinary service system with equal emphasis on prevention and rehabilitation that meets the needs of a wide range of people with disabilities.

In 2018, 621 secondary and higher vocational technical schools and regular colleges and universities began to offer degree programs on rehabilitation services, with 29,334 graduates。 To train more rehabilitation professionals, preparatory work has officially started for China Rehabilitation University, which is included in the 13th Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and the “Outline for Accelerating the Process Toward Prosperity for Persons with Disabilities in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”。

Vigorous efforts are being made to offer community rehabilitation services and enhance the service capacity. By 2018, 1,001 municipal districts and 1,749 counties (cities) were offering community rehabilitation services, employing 478,000 community rehabilitation coordinators. A rehabilitation and assistance system for children with disabilities has been established, providing institutional guarantee for these children to receive basic rehabilitation assistance. A system subsidizing assistive devices for persons with disabilities has been established in nine provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, reducing the financial burden on families with disabled members. A campaign has been launched to offer targeted rehabilitation services, such as rehabilitation therapy, rehabilitation training, support services, and assistive devices, to disabled children and those with certified disabilities. The MOST encourages the R&D of products that help and benefit persons with disabilities. It has carried out R&D programs on rehabilitation aids and repair materials for artificial tissues and organs, with a focus on two key projects – “active health and technological response to aging” and “R&D of biomedical materials and repair and replacement of tissues and organs”. The rehabilitation system for work-related injuries has been improved, and pensions for injuries and disabilities have been enhanced.

From 2006 to 2016, 21.8 million persons with disabilities made progress in rehabilitation. In 2018, 10.7 million disabled children and persons with certified disabilities received basic rehabilitation services, and the coverage of rehabilitation services for persons with disabilities reached 79.8 percent.

殘疾兒童健康得到特別關注。遵循兒童利益最大化原則,高度關注殘疾兒童健康。第二次全國殘疾人抽樣調查數據顯示,0-14歲殘疾兒童占殘疾人總人數的4.69%,比1987年第一次全國殘疾人抽樣調查數據下降11.21個百分點。優先開展0-6歲殘疾兒童搶救性治療和康復,實施精準康復服務。2018年,15.7萬名0-6歲殘疾兒童得到基本康復服務。為更全面更可持續地保障殘疾兒童的基本康復權利,國務院2018年6月發布《關于建立殘疾兒童康復救助制度的意見》,正式建立殘疾兒童康復救助制度。推進殘疾兒童康復救助項目,對患有腦癱、弱視、聽障等重大疾病兒童進行救助。建立包括殘疾孤兒在內的孤兒基本生活保障制度,實施“兒童福利機構建設藍天計劃”和“全國殘疾孤兒手術康復明天計劃”。截至2018年6月,“全國殘疾孤兒手術康復明天計劃”已為12.5萬名手術適應癥殘疾孤兒、棄嬰實施了手術矯治和康復訓練。

Special attention has been paid to the health of children with disabilities. Following the principle of maximizing the interests of children, the Chinese government pays close attention to the health of children with disabilities. According to the results of the second national sample survey on disability published in 2006, children aged 0-14 years accounted for 4.69 percent of the total population with disabilities, 11.21 percentage points lower than data from the first survey published in 1987. Priority has been given to the rescue therapy and rehabilitation of children with disabilities aged 0-6, with targeted rehabilitation services. In 2018, 157,000 children with disabilities aged 0-6 years were provided with basic rehabilitation services.

To protect the basic rehabilitation rights of children with disabilities in a more comprehensive and sustainable way, the State Council issued the “Directives on Establishing a Rehabilitation and Assistance System for Children with Disabilities” in June 2018, marking the formal establishment of the system。 Efforts have been made to promote rehabilitation and assistance services for children with major diseases such as cerebral palsy, amblyopia, and hearing impairments。 A basic living allowance system has been established for orphans, including those with disabilities。 China has carried out the Blue Sky Plan on Developing Child Welfare Institutions and the Tomorrow Plan on Surgical Rehabilitation for Orphans with Disabilities。 In the framework of the latter, by June 2018, 125,000 disabled orphans and abandoned infants with surgical indications had received surgical correction and rehabilitation training。

四、特殊教育與融合教育

IV。 Special Education and Inclusive Education

中國保障殘疾人享有平等受教育權,頒布并修訂《殘疾人教育條例》,將殘疾人教育納入《國家中長期教育改革和發展規劃綱要(2010-2020年)》《中國教育現代化2035》和《“十三五”推進基本公共服務均等化規劃》,制定實施兩期《特殊教育提升計劃》,著力辦好特殊教育,努力發展融合教育,提高殘疾人受教育水平。

China provides equal rights to education for persons with disabilities. The state has promulgated and revised the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities, included education for them in the “Outline of China’s Plan for Medium- and Long-term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)”, “China’s Education Modernization 2035”, and “Plan for Promoting Equal Access to Basic Public Services in the 13th Five-year Plan Period”, and enacted two phases of the “Special Education Promotion Plan”. All of this is designed to improve special education, develop inclusive education, and ultimately improve overall education for persons with disabilities.

殘疾人教育體系日趨完備。中國殘疾人教育以教育部門為辦學主體,民政、殘聯和社會力量輔助,涵蓋學前教育、初等教育、中等教育和高等教育。以普通學校隨班就讀為主體,以特殊教育學校為骨干,以送教上門和遠程教育為補充,統籌推進,普特結合。建立起從幼兒園到高等院校的殘疾兒童和殘疾學生資助體系,自2016年秋季學期起,免除普通高中家庭經濟困難殘疾學生學雜費,從而實現家庭經濟困難殘疾學生從小學到高中階段的12年免費教育。

The system of education for persons with disabilities has become more complete. In China, education for persons with disabilities is primarily managed by educational departments, assisted by civil affairs organs, disabled persons’ federations, and social organizations. It covers preschool education, elementary education, secondary education, and higher education. Most children with disabilities attend school with children without disabilities or go to special education schools, and some receive education at home either with visiting teachers or through long-distance education programs. Both forms of education are available for coordinated implementation. A funding system has been put in place to cover children and students with disabilities from kindergarten to college. Since the fall semester in 2016, poor students with disabilities in regular senior high schools have been exempt from fees, so that they receive 12-year free education from elementary school to senior high school.

殘疾兒童少年義務教育普及水平顯著提高。各地按照“全覆蓋、零拒絕”的要求,通過提高特殊教育學校招生能力、擴大普通學校殘疾學生隨班就讀規模及送教上門等多種方式,最大限度地保障適齡殘疾兒童少年接受義務教育的權利。特殊教育在校生數量逐年大幅度上升,視力、聽力、智力等各種類別的殘疾兒童少年受教育機會明顯增加。2018年,在校生66。6萬人,比2013年增加29。8萬人,增長81%。

More children and teenagers with disabilities have received compulsory education。 Based on the principle that all school-age children and teenagers with disabilities must go to school and none shall be denied schooling, the state has gone to great lengths to increase the capacity of special education schools and regular schools to accommodate more students with disabilities, as well as designating teachers to go to teach these students at their home。 Through these efforts children and teenagers with disabilities enjoy the greatest possible right to compulsory education。 The number of students at special education schools has grown significantly over the years, and children and teenagers with visual, hearing, intellectual and other types of impairments now have more chances of schooling than ever before。 In 2018, 666,000 students with disabilities studied on campus, an increase of 298,000 persons, or 81 percent over 2013。

殘疾人非義務教育穩步發展。不斷擴充殘疾兒童學前教育規模,除普通幼兒園積極招收殘疾兒童外,還鼓勵特殊教育學校增設學前班或附屬幼兒園,將家庭經濟困難的殘疾兒童接受學前教育納入幼兒資助范圍。2016年,3萬多名在園殘疾幼兒獲得專門資助。2012年至2018年,殘疾人事業彩票公益金助學項目共投入約3.1億元,為10.5萬人次家庭經濟困難的殘疾兒童提供學前教育資助。舉辦殘疾人高中部(班),擴大殘疾人接受高中教育的機會。制定《關于加快發展殘疾人職業教育的若干意見》,加快發展殘疾人職業教育。2018年,全國共有殘疾人中等職業學校(班)133個,在校生19475人。穩步發展殘疾人高等教育,努力暢通殘疾人接受高等教育的渠道,制定《殘疾人參加普通高等學校招生全國統一考試管理規定》,為殘疾人參加高考提供合理便利和必要支持。2012年至2018年,全國共有6.22萬殘疾考生進入普通高等院校學習。在普通高校招生錄取工作中,教育部明確要求,對肢體殘疾、生活能夠自理、能完成所報專業學習且高考成績達到要求的考生,高校不能因其殘疾而不予錄取,切實維護殘疾考生權利。為增加殘障考生上大學機會,教育部批準同意22所高校面向殘障考生采取單獨考試、單列計劃、單獨錄取,鼓勵高校開設特殊教育專業。截至2018年6月,全國已有61所普通本科高校開設特殊教育專業,在校生1萬余人。2018年,全國高職院校開設特殊教育專業點37個。

Non-compulsory education for persons with disabilities has made steady progress. The state has continued to expand the scale of preschool education for children with disabilities, encouraging regular kindergartens to enroll more of them and special education schools to open preschool courses or kindergartens. Preschool costs for disabled children from poor families have been included in funding programs for children. In 2016, more than 30,000 disabled children attending kindergartens received subsidies. From 2012 to 2018, about RMB310 million from the public welfare lotteries for persons with disabilities were used to support preschool education for 105,000 disabled children from poor families.

Senior high schools have opened special departments or classes for students with disabilities, so that they have more opportunities to receive senior high school education. The state has issued the “Directives on Accelerating the Development of Vocational Education for Persons with Disabilities”. In 2018, China had 133 secondary vocational schools or classes with an enrollment of 19,475 students with disabilities.

To develop higher education and provide more channels for students with disabilities, the state has issued the Regulations on the Participation of Persons with Disabilities in the National Exams for Regular Institutions of Higher Education, providing convenient access to exams, along with necessary support for students with disabilities。 From 2012 to 2018, a total of 62,200 students with disabilities were enrolled into regular institutions of higher education。

Regarding admissions, to ensure that the rights of examinees with disabilities are fully protected, the Ministry of Education has clear regulations that colleges and universities shall not refuse students with physical disabilities as long as they can care for themselves, can complete their studies in the disciplines they have applied for, and their exam marks have reached the admission requirements.

To provide more opportunities to students with disabilities, the Ministry of Education has ratified 22 higher education institutions to organize exams for them, and distinguished their admission plans from regular admissions. The state encourages institutions of higher education to open disciplines on special education. By June 2018, 61 colleges and universities with regular four-year undergraduate courses were running disciplines on special education, with some 10,000 students. In 2018, higher vocational colleges in China provided 37 programs on special education.

努力發展融合教育。2017年,融合教育首次寫進《殘疾人教育條例》。《中國教育現代化2035》和《第二期特殊教育提升計劃(2017-2020年)》等文件均提出全面推進融合教育。各地不斷完善隨班就讀支持保障體系,加強普通學校特殊教育資源教室建設,配備專兼職教師,在普通學校就讀的殘疾學生規模不斷擴大。在普通學校就讀的殘疾學生數由2013年的19.1萬人增加到2018年的33.2萬人,增長73.8%。近10年來,殘疾學生在普通學校就讀的比例均超過50%。

Efforts have been made to develop inclusive education. In 2017, inclusive education was covered by the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities. Other policy papers, such as “China’s Education Modernization 2035” and the “Phase-2 Special Education Promotion Plan (2017-2020)”, have also called for developing inclusive education. Across China efforts have been made to provide the support necessary for students with disabilities to go to regular schools, such as building more classrooms with resources for special education at regular schools and recruiting full-time and part-time teachers of special education. As a result, the number of students with disabilities at regular schools has seen a steady increase, from 191,000 in 2013 to 332,000 in 2018, an increase of 73.8 percent. Over the past decade, more than 50 percent of students with disabilities have been able to study at regular schools.

特殊教育公共支出持續增長。2008年至2015年,國家實施兩期特殊教育學校建設項目,財政投入71.42億元,新建、改擴建中西部地區1182所特殊教育學校,支持61所殘疾人高等院校、中等職業學校和特殊師范院校改善辦學條件。自2014年開始,中央特教專項補助經費提高到每年4.1億元,支持范圍由中西部地區擴大到除京津滬以外的所有省份。全國義務教育階段在普通學校和特殊教育學校就讀的殘疾學生年生均公用經費標準提高到6000元。部分地區將普通學校隨班就讀教師、送教上門教師納入享受特教津貼范圍。在國家針對城鄉義務教育學生免除學雜費、免費提供教科書、對家庭經濟困難學生補助生活費的基礎上,各省市還增加了對殘疾學生的資助項目,并逐步提高資助標準。部分省市實施殘疾學生從小學到高中免費教育。遴選確定華東師范大學等5所院校實施卓越特殊教育教師培養改革項目,在“國培計劃”中專設特教學校校長和骨干教師培養項目。截至2018年,培訓特教學校骨干教師10298名、校長726名。

Public spending on special education has continued to grow。 In the period from 2008 to 2015, the state introduced two construction programs for special education schools, investing RMB7。14 billion to build, renovate, or expand 1,182 special education schools in China’s central and western regions, and to support improved facilities in 61 institutions of higher education, secondary vocational schools and special education normal schools。 Since 2014, the central government has increased the subsidies for special education to RMB410 million per year to cover all areas outside of Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai。

Public spending on students with disabilities in compulsory education at regular and special education schools has increased to RMB6,000 per person per year. In some areas, teachers of disabled students at regular schools, and those teaching home-schooled students, receive subsidies for special education teachers. In addition to state policies already in place, such as exemption from tuition and fees, free textbooks, and living subsidies for poor students in compulsory education, students with disabilities have also received subsidies from local governments, and the standards of the subsidies are improving. In some provinces and municipalities directly under the central government, students with disabilities enjoy free education from elementary to senior high school.

East China Normal University and four other colleges and universities have been selected to carry out a special education program to train excellent special education teachers, and the State Training Program for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers has sub-programs for training presidents and teachers of special education schools。 By 2018 the program had trained 726 presidents and 10,298 teachers。

五、就業與創業

V. Employment and Entrepreneurship

中國以建立勞動福利型殘疾人事業為目標,通過完善法律法規、拓展就業渠道、完善服務體系,促進殘疾人就業權利的實現。

To create workfare programs for persons with disabilities, China has improved its laws and regulations, expanded channels for employment, and refined the service system to guarantee their right to employment.

殘疾人就業權利受到法律保護。《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》對殘疾人就業作了明確規定,要求各級人民政府采取優惠政策和扶持保護措施,實現殘疾人多渠道、多層次、多種形式就業。《中華人民共和國就業促進法》對保障殘疾人的勞動權利作了規定。《殘疾人就業條例》對殘疾人就業方針、政府職責、用人單位責任、保障措施、就業服務及法律責任等作了詳細規定。最高人民法院發布典型案例,依法切實保障殘疾人勞動的權利,切實維護殘疾人合法權益。地方人大和政府也發布了促進殘疾人就業、鼓勵殘疾人創業的規范性文件,保障殘疾人平等就業。

The right to employment of persons with disabilities is protected by law。 The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities stipulates that people’s governments at all levels shall formulate preferential policies as well as protective and supportive measures to help persons with disabilities to find employment through multiple channels, at various levels and in a variety of forms。 The Employment Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China contains provisions on the disabled persons’ right to work。 The Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities specifies the details about employment guidelines, government duties, employers’ responsibilities, supportive measures, employment services, and legal liability for these people。 The Supreme People’s Court publishes typical cases to help protect disabled persons’ right to work and their lawful rights and interests in accordance with the law。 Local people’s congresses and governments also issue normative documents to promote employment, encourage entrepreneurship and guarantee equal job opportunities for persons with disabilities。

殘疾人就業創業得到政策支持。政府有關部門相繼發布《關于促進殘疾人按比例就業的意見》《殘疾人就業保障金征收使用管理辦法》《關于發展殘疾人輔助性就業的意見》《關于促進殘疾人就業增值稅優惠政策的通知》《關于促進殘疾人就業政府采購政策的通知》《關于扶持殘疾人自主就業創業的意見》《殘疾人職業技能提升計劃(2016-2020年)》等一系列扶持和保護殘疾人就業的政策。將殘疾人納入積極的就業政策體系覆蓋范圍,在堅持以市場為導向的就業機制基礎上,對殘疾人就業創業采取優惠政策和扶持保護措施,包括稅費減免、設施設備扶持、政府優先采購、信貸優惠以及資金支持、崗位補貼和社會保險補貼等。《中華人民共和國中醫藥法》規定,盲人按照國家有關規定取得盲人醫療按摩人員資格的,可以以個人開業的方式或者在醫療機構內提供醫療按摩服務。國家對盲人按摩的培訓和就業、創業予以支持,累計培養盲人保健按摩人員超過11萬人、盲人醫療按摩人員約1萬人。

Policy support for the employment and self-employment of persons with disabilities. The government departments concerned have released a series of relevant policies and documents:

Opinions on Reserving a Certain Proportion of Employment Positions for Persons with Disabilities

Measures for the Administration of the Collection and Use of Employment Security Funds for Persons with Disabilities

Opinions on Promoting Supported Employment for Persons with Disabilities

Notice on Preferential Value-Added Tax Policies for Promoting Employment of Persons with Disabilities

Notice on Policies for Government Purchase of Products from Employers of Persons with Disabilities

Opinions on Supporting Employment and Entrepreneurship of Persons with Disabilities

Program on Employment Skill Improvement for Persons with Disabilities (2016-2020)

These efforts have helped persons with disabilities to enjoy the benefits of proactive employment policies. Based on market-oriented employment mechanisms, the state has taken preferential policies and supportive and protective measures for the employment and self-employment of persons with disabilities such as tax reductions, supplying facilities, preferential purchasing by the government, favorable loans and capital support, post allowance and social security subsidies.

The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Traditional Chinese Medicine provides that persons with visual disabilities who have obtained the qualification as blind medical massagers according to relevant state regulations can engage in self-employment or serve in medical institutions. The state gives support to the training, employment and self-employment of blind massagers. More than 110,000 therapeutic massagers and 10,000 medical massagers with visual disabilities have been trained.

殘疾人就業創業服務和培訓廣泛開展。各地將殘疾人就業納入公共服務范圍,為有勞動能力和就業意愿的城鄉殘疾人免費提供就業創業服務,為殘疾人就業和用人單位招用殘疾人提供幫助。省、市、縣三級政府建立了專門的殘疾人就業服務機構,為殘疾人提供政策咨詢、求職登記、職業指導、職業介紹、職業培訓等就業服務,并于元旦、春節期間舉辦就業援助月專項活動,集中為殘疾人就業提供幫扶。截至2018年,全國共有殘疾人就業服務機構2811家,工作人員3.4萬人。實施殘疾人職業技能提升計劃,開展適合殘疾人特點的職業培訓和創業培訓,組織各類殘疾人職業技能競賽,提升殘疾人就業創業能力。2018年,城鄉新增殘疾人實名制培訓49.4萬人。建立了500家國家級殘疾人職業培訓基地,350家省級殘疾人職業培訓基地。

Extensive training and services for persons with disabilities to seek employment or start businesses。 The employment of persons with disabilities is covered by public services at all levels: Persons with disabilities in both rural and urban areas who are able to and wish to work are entitled to free services in finding employment or establishing self-employment; help is offered to those with disabilities in seeking employment and to employers in hiring them。 Special employment service agencies for persons with disabilities have been set up at provincial, municipal and county levels to provide services such as policy advice, employment registration, career guidance, job opportunities, and training。 Employment aid month activities take place during the New Year and Spring Festival to help them find jobs。 By 2018, there had been 2,811 employment service organizations for persons with disabilities, with 34,000 staff。

Plans have been carried out to improve occupational skills for persons with disabilities, run training courses on jobs and entrepreneurship tailored to their needs, and hold occupational skill competitions to improve their abilities in finding employment or starting their own businesses. In 2018, another 494,000 persons with disabilities took part in training sessions. And 500 occupational training centers have been set up at the state level and 350 at the provincial level.

殘疾人就業方式豐富多樣。殘疾人按比例就業、集中就業、自主就業創業穩定發展。近年來,政府優化公益性就業崗位開發管理,鼓勵“互聯網+”就業。制定《關于發展殘疾人輔助性就業的意見》,針對就業年齡段內有就業意愿但難以進入競爭性勞動力市場的智力、精神和重度肢體殘疾人,安排輔助性就業,集中組織生產勞動,在勞動時間、勞動強度、勞動報酬和勞動協議簽訂等方面采取靈活方式。截至2017年,全國所有市轄區至少建立了一所殘疾人輔助性就業機構。通過優惠措施幫助農村殘疾人從事種植業、養殖業、手工業等生產勞動,實現就業創業。近十年來,中國殘疾人就業總體規模與結構趨于穩定,新增殘疾人就業人數每年保持在30萬人以上。2018年,城鄉持證殘疾人新增就業36。7萬人,其中,城鎮新增就業11。8萬人,農村新增就業24。9萬人。截至2018年,城鄉持證殘疾人就業人數達到948。4萬人。

Various provisions for employment of persons with disabilities. Steady progress has been made in reserving a certain proportion of employment positions, centralized employment, and self-employment for persons with disabilities. In recent years, the government has optimized the development and management of welfare jobs and encouraged “internet plus” employment. It has formulated “Directives on Supported Employment for Persons with Disabilities”, which aims to assist persons with disabilities – including intellectual, mental, and severe physical disabilities – who are working-age individuals eager to be employed but find it hard to enter the competitive job market, to obtain and maintain employment. Provisions are also made for flexible working hours, intensity, pay and labor contract. By 2017, there had been at least one supported employment agency in every municipal district. Preferential measures have been taken to help persons with disabilities in rural areas to engage in farming, breeding, and handicraft industries, all effective sources of employment.

In the past decade, the size and structure of employed persons with disabilities has remained stable, and the number has risen by 300,000 every year。 In 2018, another 367,000 persons with certified disabilities were hired, 118,000 in urban areas and 249,000 in rural areas。 By 2018, the employment figure of people with certified disabilities had reached 9。48 million。

產業扶貧助推貧困殘疾人就業增收。制定《農村殘疾人扶貧開發計劃(2001-2010年)》《農村殘疾人扶貧開發綱要(2011-2020年)》。2011年以來,中國扶持近1300萬殘疾人發展生產,其中676萬貧困殘疾人擺脫貧困。各地建立殘疾人扶貧基地5490個,安置88.1萬殘疾人就業,扶持帶動176.9萬戶殘疾人家庭增加收入。支持殘疾人貧困戶因地制宜發展種養業和手工業。深入實施“雨露計劃”,優先培訓貧困殘疾人,將適合從事農業生產的貧困殘疾人納入農民教育培訓相關工程,鼓勵他們在農業領域創業。實施職業技能提升計劃和貧困戶教育培訓工程,殘疾人貧困戶優先接受培訓,確保貧困殘疾人家庭勞動力至少掌握一門致富技能。落實殘疾人貧困戶培訓后資金、場地、設備、市場信息、經營管理等方面的就業創業服務與扶持政策措施。將優秀脫貧致富殘疾人納入貧困村創業致富帶頭人培訓工程。制定《發展手工制作促進貧困殘疾婦女就業脫貧行動實施方案》,加強對殘疾婦女的實用技術和就業技能培訓,發展手工制作,促進貧困殘疾婦女就業脫貧。鼓勵“全國巾幗脫貧基地”負責人、農村致富女帶頭人等與殘疾婦女結對幫扶。在城鎮舉辦勞動技能培訓,加強就業指導和服務,積極扶持殘疾婦女自主擇業創業。

Increasing the income of persons with disabilities through poverty relief efforts. The Chinese government has formulated the “Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation Program for Persons with Disabilities in Rural Areas (2001-2010)” and the “Outline of Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation for Persons with Disabilities in Rural Areas (2011-2020)”. Since 2011, it has helped nearly 13 million persons with disabilities to engage in production activities through poverty relief efforts, and as a result 6.76 million have got out of poverty. Across the country, 5,490 poverty alleviation centers for persons with disabilities have been set up, employing 881,000 persons with disabilities and helping to increase the income of 1.77 million households with one or more disabled members.

Support has been given to low-income households to engage in farming, breeding and handicraft industries as suited to local conditions。 The Rain-Dew Anti-poverty Campaign is carried out to a deeper level, in which priority is given to training impoverished persons with disabilities and encouraging them to start up business in agriculture by including those capable of farming into the training programs for farmers。

A vocational skill improvement program and a training program for impoverished households have been launched to ensure labors with one or more disabled family members are prioritized in receiving training and they acquire at least one skill to achieve prosperity。 And policies and measures have been taken to serve and support their employment and entrepreneurship, covering capital, worksites, facilities, market information and management。 Poverty alleviation models with disabilities are included in programs for training entrepreneurship-based poverty relief leaders in poor villages。

The state has formulated the “Plan on Developing Handicraft Industry to Lead Impoverished Women with Disabilities Out of Poverty”. It has strengthened training for these women in practical and employable skills, and developed handicrafts to help them shake off poverty. The heads of National Women’s Poverty Eradication Centers and female leaders in helping villagers achieve prosperity are encouraged to partner with and assist women with disabilities. The government holds skill training sessions in urban areas and provides more employment guidance and services to support women with disabilities in finding jobs and starting businesses.

六、基本生活與社會保障

VI. Basic Life and Social Security

中國殘疾人社會保障體系不斷完善。殘疾人按規定享受社會救助、社會福利和社會保險待遇,生活質量提升,獲得感顯著增強。

The social security system for persons with disabilities has been steadily improved。 They enjoy social assistance, welfare and insurance benefits according to regulations, and lead a higher-quality life with a greater sense of gain。

殘疾人享有平等的社會保障權利。按照平等不歧視原則,國家保障包括殘疾人在內的所有公民享有社會保障權利。《中華人民共和國憲法》明確規定:公民在年老、疾病或者喪失勞動能力的情況下,有從國家和社會獲得物質幫助的權利;國家和社會保障殘廢軍人的生活,撫恤烈士家屬,優待軍人家屬;國家和社會幫助安排盲、聾、啞和其他有殘疾的公民的勞動、生活和教育。《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》明確規定“國家保障殘疾人享有各項社會保障的權利”。《中華人民共和國社會保險法》《社會救助暫行辦法》《工傷保險條例》《軍人撫恤優待條例》等法律法規對殘疾人的社會保障權利作出具體規定。國家承擔更加積極的義務,促進殘疾人社會保障權利的實現,包括將符合條件的成年無業重度殘疾人按照單人戶納入最低生活保障范圍,對貧困和重度殘疾人參加社會保險給予補貼,對殘疾人實行社會優待等。

Persons with disabilities have equal rights to social security. Following the principles of equality and non-discrimination, the Chinese government protects the right to social security for all citizens, including persons with disabilities. The Constitution of the People’s Republic of China stipulates: “Citizens have the right to material assistance from the state and society when they are old, ill or disabled,” and “The state and society ensure the livelihood of disabled members of the armed forces, provide pensions to the families of martyrs and give preferential treatment to the families of military personnel. The state and society help make arrangements for the work, livelihood and education of the blind, deaf-mute and other handicapped citizens.” The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities states that “the state shall protect the right of persons with disabilities to various social security.” The Social Insurance Law of the People’s Republic of China, Interim Measures for Social Assistance, Regulations on Work-related Injury Insurance, Regulations on Pensions and Preferential Treatments for Servicemen, and some other laws and regulations have specific provisions on the right of persons with disabilities to social security.

The Chinese government undertakes a more positive obligation to ensure the right of persons with disabilities to social security. It includes eligible unemployed adults with severe disabilities in the system of minimum living allowances for single-person households, subsidizes impoverished persons with disabilities and those with severe disabilities in their social insurance, and gives preferential social treatment to persons with disabilities.

殘疾人生活保障體系不斷完善。按照“普惠+特惠”的原則,通過完善社會救助制度保障殘疾人的基本生存權利。同時,依法對貧困殘疾人、重度殘疾人、一戶多殘家庭給予重點救助,綜合采取措施保障其基本生活。截至2018年3月,全國共有904.4萬殘疾人享受城鄉最低生活保障。落實國務院《關于進一步健全特困人員救助供養制度的意見》,將近90萬殘疾人納入特困人員救助供養范圍。在城市公租房、舊住宅區整治建設中,優先安排貧困殘疾人住房。2018年,全國共有62萬殘疾人享受公租房保障。各地通過貸款貼息幫助殘疾人進行危房改造。截至2018年,中央財政共支持176.5萬戶農村貧困殘疾人家庭完成危房改造。自2017年起,中央財政集中支持農村貧困殘疾人家庭等4類重點對象改造危房,戶均補貼標準為1.4萬元。將符合條件的貧困殘疾人納入醫療救助范圍,資助其參加基本醫療保險,并對基本醫療保險、大病保險和其他補充醫療保險支付后難以負擔的個人自負合規醫療費用給予補助。部分省市對低收入殘疾人家庭的生活用水、電、氣、暖等基本生活支出給予優惠和補貼。

The living security system for persons with disabilities has been improved. Following the principle of “universal benefit plus special treatment”, the Chinese government protects the basic subsistence right of persons with disabilities by improving the social assistance system. At the same time, it makes legal provision for priority assistance to impoverished disabled people, severely disabled people, and households with more than one disabled member, and takes comprehensive measures to meet their basic living needs. By March 2018, over 9 million persons with disabilities had received urban or rural subsistence allowances. The “Directives on Further Improving the Assistance and Support System for People Living in Dire Poverty”, issued by the State Council, has been implemented, which includes nearly 900,000 persons with disabilities in the scope of assistance and support for the destitute.

In the management and renovation of public rental housing and old residential areas in urban areas, priority is given to poor people with disabilities。 In 2018, 620,000 persons with disabilities enjoyed public rental housing security。 All localities help persons with disabilities to renovate their dilapidated houses through loans with discounted interest。 By 2018, the central finance had supported 1。77 million rural poor households with one or more disabled members to renovate their dilapidated houses。 Since 2017, the central government has supported four key groups to renovate dilapidated houses, including rural poor households with one or more disabled members, providing an average subsidy of RMB14,000 per household。

Eligible impoverished persons with disabilities are covered by medical assistance, and receive subsidies for basic medical insurance; they also receive subsidies, based on relevant regulations, for unaffordable out-of-pocket medical expenses not covered by the basic medical insurance, serious disease insurance and other supplementary medical insurance. Some provinces and municipalities give preferential policies and subsidies to low-income families with one or more disabled members for the use of domestic water, electricity, gas and heating, and other basic living expenses.

殘疾人福利體系初步建立。建立困難殘疾人生活補貼和重度殘疾人護理補貼制度。2018年,受益殘疾人超過2190萬人次,發放補貼超過230億元。大力發展托養服務,殘疾人托養設施逐年增加。截至2018年,全國共有已竣工托養設施791個,總建筑面積214.8萬平方米,共有殘疾人托養機構8435個,為22.3萬殘疾人提供托養服務,有88.8萬殘疾人接受了居家服務。不斷完善殘疾人托養購買服務、評估監管和人才培養等機制,制定托養服務國家標準,積極培育社會力量,為殘疾人提供多層次、多元化托養服務。按照國家加快推進殘疾人小康進程的總體規劃,加快農村托養建設進程,探索以貧困重度殘疾人為主要保障對象的農村托養模式。公園、旅游景點和公共文化體育設施對殘疾人免費或優惠開放,為殘疾人發放專用機動輪椅車燃油補貼,對軍人、警察等特殊傷殘群體實施撫恤和優待政策。大多數城市對殘疾人搭乘市內公共交通工具給予便利和優惠。

A welfare system for persons with disabilities has been established. Systems for providing living allowances for poor people with disabilities and nursing subsidies for severely disabled persons have been established. In 2018, more than 21.9 million disabled people benefited from the systems, receiving subsidies of more than RMB23 billion. Vigorous efforts have been made to develop care services, and the number of care facilities for persons with disabilities has increased year by year. By 2018, there were 791 care facilities around China with a total floor area of 2.15 million sq m, and 8,435 care institutions providing residential care services for 223,000 and home services for 888,000 disabled persons. Mechanisms for purchasing such care services, assessment and supervision, and personnel training in this field have been improved; national standards for care services have been formulated; and social forces are encouraged to engage in this work. Through all these efforts, persons with disabilities now have access to multi-level and diverse care services. In accordance with the national plan for accelerating the process toward prosperity for persons with disabilities, the Chinese government has sped up the development of rural care services and a model of rural care with poor and severely disabled people as the major targets.

Parks, tourist attractions, and public cultural and sports facilities are open to persons with disabilities free of charge or at a discount。 Fuel subsidies are granted to people with motorized wheelchairs。 Pensions and preferential treatment are given to service veterans, police officers, and other special groups with disabilities。 Most cities offer conveniences and benefits to persons with disabilities on public transport。

殘疾人社會保險保障力度持續增強。實施全民參保計劃,加大殘疾人參保支持力度,對招用符合條件的就業困難殘疾人的企業給予參保補貼,對城鄉貧困殘疾人和重度殘疾人參保給予補貼。截至2018年,2561.2萬城鄉殘疾人參加城鄉社會養老保險,1024.4萬殘疾人領取養老金。595.2萬重度殘疾人中有576萬人得到了政府參保補助,代繳養老保險費比例達到96.8%;另有298.4萬非重度殘疾人享受全額或部分代繳養老保險費的優惠政策。近年來,殘疾人參加各項社會保險的人數和比例持續上升,2018年,持證殘疾居民養老保險參保率為79.2%。試點和完善與殘疾人相關的社會保險制度,2010年,國務院修訂《工傷保險條例》,提高工傷致殘補償標準。2018年,全國參加工傷保險人數為23874萬人,評定傷殘等級人數為56.9萬人,享受工傷保險待遇人數為198.5萬人。部分地區探索殘疾人意外傷害保險制度,財政給予參保補貼,緩解了殘疾家庭的經濟壓力。在全國15個城市試點長期護理保險制度,對符合條件的長期失能殘疾人基本護理服務費用按規定支付,減輕了殘疾家庭的護理負擔。

Coverage of social insurance for persons with disabilities has continued to expand. The Chinese government has adopted an insurance regime of universal coverage, under which more support is given to persons with disabilities, insurance subsidies are granted to enterprises employing disabled people with difficulties in finding jobs, and subsidies are granted to impoverished disabled persons and severely disabled persons in both urban and rural areas. By 2018, 25.61 million persons with disabilities had been covered by urban and rural social old-age insurance, and 10.24 million received pensions. 5.76 million of the 5.95 million persons with severe disabilities received insurance subsidies from the government, 96.8 percent had their old-age insurance premiums paid on their behalf, and another 2.98 million persons with mild disabilities had their old-age insurance premiums paid by their employers in full or partially. In recent years, the numbers and proportion of persons with disabilities being covered by various social insurances have continued to grow. In 2018, 79.2 percent of residents with certified disabilities were covered by the old-age insurance.

Pilot work has been done to carry out and improve social insurance systems related to persons with disabilities. In 2010, the State Council revised the Regulations on Work-related Injury Insurance to increase the compensation standards for work-related injuries. In 2018, 239 million people took out work-related injury insurance policies, 569,000 people received evaluation of the degree of their disabilities, and almost 2 million people were granted work-related injury compensations. In some areas, an accident insurance system for persons with disabilities has been established with financial subsidies for those insured, which alleviates the financial pressure on families with one or more disabled members. Pilot work has been done to implement a long-term care insurance system in 15 cities, under which the cost of basic care services for eligible persons with long-term disabilities will be paid in accordance with the regulations, which reduces the burden of care for families with one or more disabled members.

殘疾人脫貧攻堅深入開展。中共十八大以來,政府將貧困殘疾人脫貧納入國家脫貧攻堅戰略布局,并作為脫貧攻堅重要內容,在制度設計、政策安排、項目實施上給予支持。中共中央、國務院2018年發布《關于打贏脫貧攻堅戰三年行動的指導意見》,專節部署貧困殘疾人脫貧行動,確保到2020年貧困殘疾人同全國一道進入全面小康社會。國務院扶貧辦、國家發展改革委、中國殘聯等26部門制定《貧困殘疾人脫貧攻堅行動計劃(2016-2020年)》,并制定了電子商務助殘扶貧行動、產業扶持助殘扶貧行動等配套實施方案。加大金融資金投入,2011年至2018年,中央財政累計安排康復扶貧貼息貸款53億元,35萬貧困殘疾人受益。實施精準扶貧戰略以來,政府將600多萬殘疾人納入貧困戶建檔立卡范圍,截至2018年,建檔立卡貧困殘疾人人數已減少到169.8萬。

Poverty eradication for persons with disabilities has been advanced。 Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the government has included poverty eradication for people with disabilities into the national strategy as an important element, and offers support in system design, policy arrangements, and project implementation。 In 2018, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the “Directives on Winning the Three-year Poverty Eradication Campaign”, which designates a special section to poverty eradication activities for impoverished people with disabilities to ensure they achieve moderate prosperity with the rest of the country by 2020。 Twenty-six departments, including the State Council Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development, National Development and Reform Commission, and CDPF, formulated the “Action Plan on Poverty Eradication for Impoverished Persons with Disabilities (2016-2020)” and supporting programs on lifting these people out of poverty through e-commerce or industrial development。 Financial investment has been increased in this regard。 From 2011 to 2018, the central finance arranged a total of RMB5。3 billion as subsidized loans for rehabilitation-based poverty alleviation, benefiting 350,000 poor people with disabilities。 Since the targeted poverty alleviation strategy was established, the government has registered more than 6 million persons with disabilities as poverty-stricken households in need of help。 By 2018, the number of registered poor people with disabilities had decreased to 1。7 million。

七、無障礙環境建設與個人行動能力

VII。 Creating an Accessible Environment and Enabling Mobility

中國重視無障礙環境建設與輔助器具供應和適配服務,逐步完善相關法律法規和標準,不斷加大支持力度。

China attaches importance to creating an accessible environment and supplying and adapting assistive devices and tools。 It has improved relevant laws, regulations and standards, and increased support in this regard。

無障礙環境建設形成規范體系。自1989年《方便殘疾人使用的城市道路和建筑物設計規范(試行)》頒布實施以來,中國相繼制定了《無障礙設計規范》《無障礙設施施工驗收及維護規范》等國家標準;發布實施《城市公共交通設施無障礙設計指南》《標志用公共信息圖形符號第9部分:無障礙設施符號》等國家標準。國家民航、鐵路、工業和信息化、教育、銀行等主管部門分別制定實施了民用機場旅客航站區、鐵路旅客車站、網站及通信終端設備、特殊教育學校、銀行等行業無障礙建設標準規范。2012年,國務院頒布《無障礙環境建設條例》。中共十八大以來,無障礙環境建設立法進一步加強,法律法規和政策措施呈現明顯增長的態勢。截至2018年,全國省、地(市)、縣共制定無障礙環境與管理的法規、規章等規范性文件475部。

A system of standards for creating an accessible environment has taken shape. After the “Design Standards of Urban Roads and Buildings for the Convenience of Persons with Disabilities (Trial)” came into effect in 1989, China has formulated the “Codes for Accessibility Design”, the “Construction Acceptance and Maintenance Standards of the Barrier-free Facilities” and other national standards, and issued the “Accessibility Design Guide for Urban Public Transport Facilities” and the “Public Information Graphical Symbols for Use on Sign – Part 9: Symbols for Accessible Facilities”. The administrative departments of civil aviation, rail, industry and information technology, education, and banking have drawn up construction codes for accessibility facilities in passenger terminals of civil airports, passenger railway stations, websites, telecommunications terminal devices, special education schools, and banks. In 2012, the State Council issued the Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, legislation on creating an accessible environment has been intensified and the number of relevant laws, regulations, policies and measures has seen an obvious increase. By 2018, 475 rules and regulations on creating and managing an accessible environment had been made by authorities of provinces, prefectures (cities) and counties.

城鄉無障礙環境建設由點到面有序推進。“十五”期間,在12個城市開展了創建全國無障礙設施建設示范城市活動;“十一五”期間,創建活動擴展到100個城市;“十二五”期間,50個市縣獲選全國無障礙建設示范市縣,143個市縣獲選全國無障礙建設創建市縣。2015年2月,住房城鄉建設部、民政部、中國殘聯等部門發布了《關于加強村鎮無障礙環境建設的指導意見》,推進無障礙環境建設由城市逐步向農村發展。開展無障礙環境市縣村鎮創建工作。截至2018年,全國所有直轄市、計劃單列市、省會城市都開展了創建全國無障礙建設城市的工作,開展無障礙建設的市、縣達到1702個;全國村(社區)綜合服務設施中已有75%的出入口、40%的服務柜臺、30%的廁所進行了無障礙建設和改造。政府加快了殘疾人家庭無障礙改造進度,2016年至2018年共有298.6萬戶殘疾人家庭得到無障礙改造。

Creating an accessible environment has been expanded from pilot cities to the whole country in an orderly manner. During the 10th Five-year Plan period (2001-2005), 12 cities were selected as demonstration cities for creating an accessible environment. This was expanded to 100 cities during the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010). During the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), 50 cities and counties were cited as models in building an accessible environment and 143 cities or counties were selected as models in innovative building of an accessible environment. In February 2015, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Ministry of Civil Affairs, CDPF and some other ministries jointly issued the “Guiding Opinions on Improving Accessibility in Towns and Villages” to extend the campaign to rural areas. More efforts have been made to create more such models. By 2018, all municipalities directly under the central government, cities specifically designated in the state plan, and provincial capitals had started building an accessible environment. A thousand seven hundred and two cities and counties had initiated efforts to improve accessibility and remove barriers. Among comprehensive service facilities in villages or communities across the country, 75 percent of entrances, 40 percent of service counters and 30 percent of restrooms have been constructed or upgraded for accessibility. The government has also accelerated the pace of adapting the houses of families with disabled members, and improved almost 3 million of such houses between 2016 and 2018.

信息無障礙建設步伐加快。制定關于信息無障礙的國家技術標準,推動政務和公共服務網站的信息無障礙建設。加強信息無障礙標準體系建設,發布多個國家及行業標準,為殘疾人便利使用信息通信設備、獲取互聯網信息、操縱輔助裝置等提供有效標準支撐。推進中國政務網站信息無障礙建設。截至2018年,500多家政府單位完成了信息無障礙公共服務平臺建設,3萬多個政務和公共服務網站實現了無障礙服務。將手語和盲文的規范化和推廣作為國家義務,《國家中長期語言文字事業改革和發展規劃綱要(2012-2020年)》和《國家語言文字事業改革“十三五”發展規劃》將手語和盲文納入國家語言文字工作總體規劃。2018年,《國家通用手語常用詞表》和《國家通用盲文方案》正式頒布實施。全國人民代表大會等重大會議的直播加配手語播報,中央廣電總臺和部分地方電視臺在重要節目中加配手語播報服務。截至2018年,全國省、地市級電視臺共開設電視手語欄目295個,廣播電臺共開設殘疾人專題廣播節目230個,省、地(市)、縣三級公共圖書館共設立盲文及盲文有聲讀物閱覽室1124個。對殘疾人信息消費給予優惠或補貼。中國殘聯、工業和信息化部發布《關于支持視力、聽力、言語殘疾人信息消費的指導意見》,鼓勵基礎電信企業推出面向特定人群的資費優惠,引導大型互聯網企業為從事互聯網行業的視力、聽力、言語殘疾人在技能培訓、運營管理、信息共享等方面提供便利。互聯網企業也在提升殘疾人網購體驗、開放信息無障礙技術、開展職業技能培訓等方面提供了一系列服務。

Information accessibility has been improved. China has drawn up national technical standards for information accessibility, and upgraded government and public service websites. The state has issued a series of national and industrial standards for persons with disabilities to use information communications equipment, to obtain online information, and to operate assistive devices, which has further completed China’s system of standards in this field. China has also made efforts to enable persons with disabilities to access information on government websites. By 2018, over 500 government departments had built accessible public service platforms, and more than 30,000 websites on government affairs and public service on had removed barriers for persons with disabilities.

The state is obligated to standardize and promote sign language and Braille. The “Outline of the Long and Medium-term Reform and Development Plan of Spoken and Written Languages of China (2012-2020)” and the “National Reform Plan of Spoken and Written Languages During the 13th Five-year Plan Period (2016-2020)” both include sign language and Braille in the overall plan. The “Lexicon of Common Expressions in Chinese National Sign Language” and the “Chinese Common Braille Scheme” were issued and came into effect in 2018. Important meetings such as the NPC plenary sessions have sign language interpretation in live broadcast, and China Media Group and some local television stations provide sign language interpretation for some important programs. In 2018, provincial and prefectural/city television stations ran 295 sign language programs, and radio stations broadcast 230 programs for persons with disabilities; and public libraries at provincial, prefectural/city and county levels had 1,124 Braille and audio rooms.

China offers preferential policies or subsidies to persons with disabilities to enable them to access information。 The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the CDPF jointly issued the “Guiding Opinions on Supporting the Information Consumption by People with Visual, Hearing or Speech Impairments”, which encourages telecommunications service providers to offer preferential plans to these specific groups, and guides large internet companies to provide convenience for these people in such domains as skills training, operations management, and information sharing, to facilitate their participation in internet-related businesses。 Internet companies also make efforts to improve their online shopping experience, to share information accessibility technologies, and to give vocational skill training。

重點領域無障礙建設積極推進。啟動到2035年交通運輸無障礙出行服務體系建設,交通運輸部在客運樞紐、高速公路服務區、客運碼頭、地鐵站等交通基礎設施以及城市公共汽車電車、地鐵等交通工具的設計使用標準中增加無障礙要求。各地積極推廣應用無障礙化客運車輛,在公共交通工具上設置“老弱病殘”專座,使用低地板公交車和無障礙出租汽車。大部分城市公交車都配備車載屏幕和語音報站系統,部分城市公交車安裝了車載導盲系統。多個省份客運設施無障礙建設率達到100%。鐵路部門為3400余輛動車組列車設置了殘疾人專座,允許盲人攜帶導盲犬乘坐火車。銀行業金融機構改造輪椅坡道和盲道,配置語音叫號系統、叫號顯示屏等設備,設立無障礙衛生間和無障礙停車位。郵政部門為重度殘疾人提供上門服務,快遞行業為聾人客戶提供短信服務,盲人讀物免費寄送。完善訴訟無障礙設施及服務。大力推進法院接待場所、審判場所的無障礙設施建設,方便殘疾人參加訴訟。積極推進信息交流無障礙環境建設,根據案件情況,允許相關輔助、陪護人員陪同殘疾當事人出庭。

Creating an accessible environment has been promoted in key areas。 The 2035 plan for a barrier-free public transport system has been launched。 The Ministry of Transport adds accessibility requirements in the design standards of transport facilities such as passenger terminals, expressway service areas, ferry terminals, subway stations, city buses and subway trains。 Various localities use more accessible passenger vehicles like low-floor buses and wheelchair accessible taxies, and require reserved seats for the elderly, infirm, sick, and disabled in public transport vehicles。 Buses are equipped with telescreens and next-stop announcement systems in most cities, and blind guidance systems in some cities。 All public transport facilities are accessible for persons with disabilities in many provinces。 The rail administration reserves seats for them on more than 3,400 CRH trains, and permits visually impaired people to board with guide dogs。 Financial institutions have upgraded wheelchair ramps and tactile paving, installed number calling and display systems, and set up accessible restrooms and disabled parking spaces。 Post offices provide door-to-door services for persons with severe disabilities。 Delivery companies send text messages to clients with hearing impairments, and deliver publications in Braille for free。 The facilities and services for persons with disabilities to access the legal services have been improved。 Accessibility has been upgraded in the reception rooms and judicial tribunals of courts to enable them to enjoy equal legal rights。 The courts also promote information accessibility, and allow assistants to those with disabilities to appear in court when necessary。

輔助器具供應和適配服務獲得政策支持。2016年,國務院制定《關于加快發展康復輔助器具產業的若干意見》,對推進輔助器具產業快速發展作出部署。財政部、稅務總局、民政部聯合發布《關于生產和裝配傷殘人員專門用品企業免征企業所得稅的通知》,免征上述企業的企業所得稅,降低傷殘人員專門用品的生產成本。各地相繼制定輔助器具補貼辦法,對購買輔助器具和提供適配服務給予補貼。2018年,有319。1萬殘疾人獲得盲杖、助視器、假肢等各類輔具適配服務。自1996年以來,各級政府組織實施“長江新里程計劃”假肢服務、彩票公益金輔助器具服務等重點項目,累計為1500萬人次提供了服務。

Services for supplying and adapting assistive appliances are guaranteed by national policies. In 2016, the State Council formulated “Directives on Accelerating the Development of the Industry of Rehabilitation Assistive Appliances”, and the Ministry of Finance, State Taxation Administration and Ministry of Civil Affairs jointly issued the “Notice on the Exemption of Corporate Income Tax from the Enterprises Manufacturing and Assembling the Special Products for Persons with Disabilities” to reduce the cost of such products. Local governments have formulated subsidy measures for assistive appliances and adaption services. In 2018, 3.19 million persons with disabilities benefited from adaption services of such assistive devices as white canes, visual aids and artificial limbs. Programs organized by governments at various levels such as Cheung Kong New Milestone Plan (for artificial limbs) and lottery-subsidized assistive tools have benefited 15 million people since 1996.

殘疾人個人行動能力得到提升。公安部不斷放寬殘疾人申領駕駛證條件,已有27。9萬肢體、聽力等殘障人員申領駕駛證。《殘疾人航空運輸管理辦法》要求承運人、機場和機場地面服務代理人為具備乘機條件的殘疾人免費提供登機、離機所需要的移動輔助設備。每列火車預留殘疾人旅客專用票額。盲人可以免費乘坐市內公交。制定《導盲犬》國家標準。積極發展網絡、電話預約出租汽車服務,方便殘疾人群體乘車出行。

The personal mobility of persons with disabilities has been improved。 The Ministry of Public Security has relaxed the restrictions preventing persons with disabilities from applying for a driving license, and 279,000 people with physical or hearing disabilities have gained licenses。 “Measures for the Administration of Air Transport for Persons with Disabilities” require transport providers, airports and airport ground service agents to provide sufficient free mobility assistive facilities to enable eligible disabled persons to embark and disembark。 All trains should reserve a certain quota of tickets for persons with disabilities。 Visually impaired people can ride city buses for free。 China has drawn up national standards for guide dogs。 The government has also developed online and telephone taxi reservation services for those with disabilities。

八、人身自由與非歧視

VIII。 Personal Freedom and Non-Discrimination

中國禁止基于殘疾的歧視,制定特別保護措施,保護殘疾人的生命權和人身自由,保障殘疾人平等享有各項公民權利。

China prohibits any forms of disability discrimination. It has drawn up specific measures to protect the right to life and personal freedom of persons with disabilities and ensure that they enjoy equal rights as other citizens.

殘疾人人身權利得到法律嚴格保護。《中華人民共和國刑法》《中華人民共和國民法總則》《中華人民共和國侵權責任法》《中華人民共和國婚姻法》《中華人民共和國未成年人保護法》《中華人民共和國勞動合同法》《中華人民共和國精神衛生法》《中華人民共和國反家庭暴力法》等相關法律對殘疾人的人身權利作出相應規定,對虐待、遺棄、故意傷害殘疾人等行為依法予以懲處。《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》全面具體規定了殘疾人人身權利及保障措施。

Personal rights of persons with disabilities are fully protected by laws. In China, the Criminal Law, General Provisions of the Civil Law, Tort Law, Marriage Law, Law on the Protection of Minors, Labor Contract Law, Mental Health Law, Anti-domestic Violence Law and many other laws define the personal rights of persons with disabilities and stipulate the punishments for maltreating, abandoning, or maliciously injuring them. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities makes full and detailed provisions for their personal rights and defines measures to protect them.

適時調整相關機制保障殘疾人人身自由。廢除收容遣送制度,對包括殘疾人在內的流浪乞討人員實行自愿救助;廢除對麻風病人實行嚴格隔離的做法,讓患者回歸家庭和社區;實施“中央補助地方嚴重精神障礙管理治療項目”,嚴重精神障礙患者登記報告、救治救助、隨訪服務等已覆蓋全國。

Efforts have been made to adjust mechanisms for protecting the personal freedom of those with disabilities。 The state has abolished the system to shelter and send back vagrants and beggars – including those with disabilities – to their homes, but provides assistance to them in line with their own free choice。 The practice of isolating lepers from family or community has been abrogated。 The central government has established a nationwide program to subsidize local governments for the management and treatment of serious mental illnesses, so as to register, report and rehabilitate such patients through medical treatment and follow-up。

加大對侵犯殘疾人人身自由犯罪的打擊力度。《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》禁止任何單位和個人以暴力、威脅或者非法限制人身自由的手段強迫殘疾人勞動。為切實保障殘疾人人身自由和安全,刑法修正案(六)增加“強迫組織殘疾人、兒童乞討罪”,刑法修正案(九)增加對殘疾人負監護、看護職責的人虐待殘疾人,情節惡劣的,要承擔刑事責任條款。最高人民檢察院等部門發布《關于在檢察工作中切實維護殘疾人合法權益的意見》,要求對強迫智力殘疾人勞動、拐賣殘疾婦女兒童等違法犯罪行為依法從重打擊。公安部開展整治強迫、誘騙未成年殘疾人流浪乞討和強迫、拐騙聾啞青少年違法犯罪行為專項行動。人力資源社會保障部開展整治非法用工專項行動。最高人民法院、中國殘聯聯合發布《關于在審判執行工作中切實維護殘疾人合法權益的意見》等規范性文件,對侵害殘疾人權益的犯罪行為,依法嚴厲懲處,切實保護殘疾人的人身財產安全。

Action has been stepped up against crimes that violate the personal freedom of persons with disabilities. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities forbids any entity or individual to force any person with disability to work by means of violence, threat or illegal restriction of personal freedom. The Amendment VI to the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China adds a crime of “organizing any disabled person or any minor to go begging”, and the Amendment IX to the Criminal Law adds a clause defining the criminal responsibility borne by anyone with a duty to ward or nurse a disabled person who maltreats the person under his or her guardianship or provides improper care. The Supreme People’s Court and the CDPF jointly issued the “Directives on Effectively Protecting the Lawful Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in Trial and Enforcement” and other regulatory documents, requiring stiff punishments in accordance with the law for crimes that violate the rights and interests of these people, so as to effectively ensure their safety and protect their property. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate and other departments issued the “Directives on Effectively Protecting the Lawful Rights and Interests of Persons with Disabilities in Procuratorial Work”, requiring severe punishments in accordance with the law for crimes like forcing persons with intellectual disabilities to labor or trafficking disabled women and children. The Ministry of Public Security launched a special campaign against crimes that force or lure disabled minors to beg or deaf juveniles to commit crimes. The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security also initiated a special effort to control illegal employment.

立法禁止基于殘疾的歧視。法律法規對反歧視和合理便利作出具體規定。2007年制定的《中華人民共和國就業促進法》明確規定,用人單位招用人員,不得歧視殘疾人。2008年修訂的《中華人民共和國殘疾人保障法》明確了反歧視原則:禁止基于殘疾的歧視,禁止侮辱、侵害殘疾人,禁止通過大眾傳播媒介或者其他方式貶低損害殘疾人人格。2010年以來,制定《中華人民共和國精神衛生法》《殘疾預防和殘疾人康復條例》《殘疾人航空運輸管理辦法》以及修訂《殘疾人教育條例》《殘疾人就業條例》等相關法律法規,增加了不歧視的內容,并對不歧視作出具體規定。

Laws have been enacted to prohibit any forms of disability discrimination。 China’s laws and regulations contain detailed provisions to combat discrimination and ensure reasonable accommodation。 The Employment Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China adopted in 2007 stipulates that an employer recruiting staff must not discriminate persons with disabilities。 The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Persons with Disabilities revised in 2008 defines the principle of anti-discrimination: “Discrimination on the basis of disability shall be prohibited。 Insult of and disservice to persons with disabilities shall be prohibited。 Disparagement of and infringement upon the dignity of persons with disabilities by means of mass media or any other means shall be prohibited。” Since 2010, China has enacted the Mental Health Law, Regulations on Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, and Measures for the Administration of Air Transport for Persons with Disabilities, and revised the Regulations on the Education of Persons with Disabilities and Regulations on the Employment of Persons with Disabilities, all of which include detailed clauses to combat discrimination。

九、營造良好社會環境

IX. Creating a Good Social Environment

中國倡導社會主義核心價值觀和“平等、參與、共享”的理念,弘揚中華民族傳統美德和人道主義精神,培育全社會扶殘助殘意識,形成關愛殘疾人、關心殘疾人事業的良好社會風尚。

China advocates core socialist values and the concepts of “equality, participation and sharing”, carries forward China’s traditional virtues and humanitarianism, and cultivates awareness of helping people with disabilities as part of the effort to create a social environment in which persons with disabilities are cared for, and the programs to help them are promoted。

殘疾人文化事業欣欣向榮。《中華人民共和國公共文化服務保障法》和《“十三五”推進基本公共服務均等化規劃》均載入殘疾人文化服務項目,將殘疾人文化事業納入國家公共文化服務體系。各地采取措施確保殘疾人以無障礙方式獲得文化產品和服務,欣賞電視、電影、戲劇等文化作品。文化和旅游部與中國殘聯連續多年在全國開展殘疾人文化周活動,2018年120余萬殘疾人參與該活動。各類殘疾人藝術團體快速發展,全國各類殘疾人藝術團體已有283個,殘疾人文化藝術從業人員近30萬名。“共享芬芳 共鑄小康”公益巡演展覽活動啟動三年以來,共有17萬余人參加。每四年舉辦一屆全國殘疾人藝術匯演,截至2017年,共舉辦9屆,每屆參與的殘疾人達10多萬人。中國殘疾人藝術團出訪100個國家和地區進行交流演出,被聯合國教科文組織指定為“聯合國教科文組織和平藝術家”,《千手觀音》節目享譽世界。2011年至2018年,中央財政投入近1200萬元,在城市社區實施“殘疾人文化進社區”項目,為社區設立“殘疾人書架”,配備文化活動用品。在“農家書屋”工程中把為殘疾人服務的圖書列入采購書目。實施文化進殘疾人家庭“五個一項目”,支持中西部和農村地區10萬戶貧困、重度殘疾人家庭每年讀一本書、看一次電影、游一次園、參觀一次展覽、參加一次文化活動。建成融多種功能于一體的中國盲文圖書館,組織實施盲人數字閱讀推廣工程。

The cultural activities of persons with disabilities are thriving. The Public Cultural Service Guarantee Law of the People’s Republic of China and the “Plan for Promoting Equal Access to Basic Public Services in the 13th Five-year Plan Period” have included the cultural service programs for those with disabilities into the national cultural service system.

Measures have been taken across the country to ensure accessibility to cultural products and services for persons with disabilities, enabling them to appreciate TV programs, films and dramas. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism and CDPF have held an annual cultural week for persons with disabilities for several years. In 2018, over 1.2 million people with disabilities took part in such activities.

Art troupes of persons with disabilities are growing fast; their number has increased to 283, employing about 300,000 disabled art workers. During the three years since the launch of the Charity Performance Tours and Exhibitions, a total of 170,000 persons with disabilities have taken part in the initiative. The National Disability Art Festival is held every four years. By 2017, it had been held nine times, attracting over 100,000 to participate each year. Designated as UNESCO Artist for Peace, the China Disabled People’s Performing Art Troupe has visited 100 countries and regions for performance and exchanges; the Thousand-hand Bodhisattva dance enjoys prestige throughout the world.

From 2011 to 2018, the central budget allocated about RMB12 million to launch the project of “Enriching the Community Culture for Persons with Disabilities” in cities, setting up reading sections and supplying cultural products for them. Books for people with disabilities have been added on the shopping list in the “Village Library” project. A cultural campaign has been launched for households with disabled members, particularly the 100,000 impoverished households and those with severely disabled members in the middle and western regions and rural areas. The campaign will enable each of them to read one book, watch one film, tour one park, visit one exhibition, and take part in one cultural activity every year. We have built a multifunctional Braille library and launched a digital reading project for persons with disabilities.

殘疾人體育事業蓬勃發展。殘疾人健身體育、康復體育和競技體育全面發展。2011年,啟動殘疾人自強健身工程,提高殘疾人體育健身指導服務能力和服務水平。自2011年起,體育總局支持中國殘聯開展殘疾人社會體育指導員培訓,截至2017年,共培養10.4萬名社會體育指導員。各級政府和組織加大經費投入,為各類殘疾人開辟日常體育活動場所。2017年,各地殘疾人文化體育活動場所達到9053個。成功舉辦上海特奧會、北京殘奧會和廣州亞殘運會,成功申辦2022年冬季殘奧會;共參加9屆夏季殘奧會,1337名運動員參加,獲得433塊金牌、339塊銀牌、250塊銅牌,打破261項世界紀錄,實現金牌榜4連冠;參加4屆冬季殘奧會,55名運動員參加,在2018年平昌冬殘奧會上實現冬季項目金牌零的突破。積極參加國際聽障奧運會和特奧會。

Sports for persons with disabilities are flourishing。 Fitness and rehabilitation activities and competitive sports are making rapid progress。 In 2011, a fitness program was launched to provide better guidance and service for persons with disabilities。 Since 2011, the General Administration of Sport has supported the CDPF in training social sports instructors for people with disabilities。 By 2017, a total of 104,000 instructors had been trained。 Governments and organizations at all levels have increased investment in the building of sports venues for people with disabilities。 In 2017 there were 9,053 cultural and sports venues for people with disabilities across the nation。

Shanghai Special Olympics, Beijing Paralympic Games, and Guangzhou Asia Para Games have been successful. China has succeeded in a bid for the 2022 Winter Paralympic Games. And it has attended nine summer Paralympics in which 1,337 athletes have participated, wining 433 gold, 339 silver and 250 bronze medals. They have broken 261 world records and ranked top in the gold medal tally for the last four Paralympics. China has competed in four Winter Paralympics with a total of 55 athletes, and won the first gold medal in the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Paralympic Games. China has actively taken part in Deaflympics and Special Olympics.

助殘社會組織逐步壯大。2012年以來,中央財政每年劃撥專項資金支持社會組織參與社會服務,其中殘疾人社會服務是重點領域之一。推進社會組織“放管服”改革,支持社區社會組織承接社區公共服務和基層政府委托事項,完善國家對助殘社會組織的稅收優惠政策。助殘社會組織的數量迅速增長。截至2017年,各地民政部門共登記助殘社會組織6200余個,包括1500余個社會團體、4600余個民辦非企業單位和約100個基金會。

Social organizations of disability support are growing. Since 2012, the central budget has allocated special funds to support social organizations in providing social services, particularly for persons with disabilities. We have encouraged social organizations to streamline administration, delegate powers, innovate supervision, and improve services. We have given support to community-level social organizations in undertaking community public services and tasks entrusted by grassroots governments. And the state has improved preferential tax policies for social disability support organizations. These organizations are growing rapidly. By 2017, over 6,200 such organizations had been registered at local civil affairs departments, including 1,500 civil societies, 4,600 private non-enterprise entities and 100 foundations.

扶殘助殘社會風尚基本形成。中國政府網站開設殘疾人信息與服務專欄,報刊、廣播、電視和網絡等新聞媒體廣泛報道殘疾人生活和事務,促進尊重殘疾人的尊嚴和權利,消除對殘疾人的偏見和歧視,形成理解、尊重、幫助殘疾人的社會氛圍。自1991年設立全國助殘日(每年5月第三個星期日)以來,已開展29次全國助殘日活動。每年開展“牽著蝸牛去散步”等公益系列活動,各類公益慈善組織、志愿者服務組織開展了形式多樣的面向殘疾兒童的公益活動。舉辦殘疾人運動會、文藝匯演、職業技能競賽等大型活動,展示殘疾人自強不息的精神風貌。開展百家圖書館、百家媒體、百家博物館、百家出版社等文化公益助殘活動,提升全社會對殘疾人的關注。在中小學生中開展“紅領巾手拉手助殘”行動;在高校學生和廣大青年中開展中國青年志愿者助殘“陽光行動”;成立中國助殘志愿者協會,整合凝聚社會力量推進志愿助殘服務。

Social norms to support and help persons with disabilities have been established。 Government websites have special sections for disability information and services。 News media such as newspaper, radio, television and internet have wide coverage of the life of people with disabilities to help promote respect for their dignity and rights, eradicate prejudice and discrimination against them, and establish social norms to encourage the general public to understand, respect and help them。 Since 1991 when the National Day for Helping Persons with Disabilities (the third Sunday in every May) was designated, 29 theme activities have been held。

Every year, public welfare activities to help people with intellectual disabilities are organized, and a variety of other activities for children with disabilities are also carried out by charity and volunteer organizations. Sporting activities, art performances, and vocational skills competitions of people with disabilities are held to celebrate their spirit of self-improvement and resilience. Non-profit campaigns in the cultural sector have also been launched to raise the public profile of this group, such as ensuring their access to 100 libraries and museums, and to books donated by 100 publishing houses, and expanding news coverage of their stories by 100 news media.

In primary and secondary schools, able-bodied Young Pioneers are encouraged to pair with their disabled peers to learn from each other. For college students and young people, the Sunshine Action has been launched to recruit youth volunteers to help people with disabilities. The China Association of Volunteers for Persons with Disabilities has been set up to unite all social forces in providing better services for these people.

殘疾人精神和貢獻獲得社會褒揚。殘疾人積極投身于國家建設,努力實現自身價值,并為社會做出貢獻。他們中涌現出一大批自強不息、奮發有為的先進人物,獲得“全國勞動模范”“全國三八紅旗手”等稱號。國家和地方表彰了一大批殘疾人自強模范,授予“自強模范”“助殘先進個人”“助殘先進集體”等稱號。召開6次全國自強模范暨助殘先進表彰大會,表彰919個“全國自強模范”、1117個“全國助殘先進集體”和“全國助殘先進個人”。

The spirit of persons with disabilities and the contribution they make is winning favor with the public。 Persons with disabilities devote themselves to national development, and try to maximize the value of their contribution to society。 A number of aspirant and enterprising models have emerged and won the titles of “National Model Worker” and “National Model Women Worker”。 The state and local governments have rewarded a large number of role models with disabilities and individuals and units of disability support。 The state has held six national conferences on commending role models with disabilities and model individuals and units for helping those with disabilities, rewarding 919 “National Self-improvement Models”, and 1,117 “Outstanding Units for Helping Persons with Disabilities” and “Outstanding Individuals for Helping Persons with Disabilities”。

十、對外交流與國際合作

X. International Exchanges and Cooperation

積極開展殘疾人事務國際交流與合作,增進國際社會對中國殘疾人事業的理解與支持,促進國際殘疾人事業的發展與進步。

China actively participates in international exchanges and cooperation on disability, promotes better understanding and stronger support in the international community for the cause of persons with disabilities in China, and contributes to the development and progress of these people worldwide。

認真履行條約義務。中國認真履行《殘疾人權利公約》締約國責任和義務。根據《殘疾人權利公約》規定,2010年提交第一次履約報告,并接受聯合國殘疾人權利委員會審議,2018年提交第二、三次合并履約報告。中國是《經濟、社會及文化權利國際公約》等核心人權公約的締約國,公約所確定的殘疾人權利得到普遍尊重和保障。中國還批準了國際勞工組織《(殘疾人)職業康復和就業公約》,于2015年提交了最新一次履約報告。

Fulfilling obligations in international instruments on disability. China fulfills all the responsibilities and obligations of a signatory state prescribed in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In accordance with the provisions of the convention, China submitted its first report in 2010, which was reviewed by the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In 2018, it submitted a consolidated report of the second and third implementations of the convention. As a signatory state of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which is a core human right instrument, China respects and safeguards all the rights of persons with disabilities as stipulated by the covenant. In 1987, China approved the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Disabled Persons) Convention from the International Labor Organization, and submitted the latest report of its implementation in 2015.

主動承擔國際責任。中國積極主動向聯合國、有關國際殘疾人組織和發展中國家提供力所能及的資金、技術和物資支持,向埃塞俄比亞、布隆迪、蒙古等十多個國家捐贈殘疾人輔助器具,向東南亞海嘯受災國捐贈救災款物并向殘疾人定向捐贈,向國際殘奧委會發展基金捐款,為亞太經濟合作組織成員經濟體和非洲國家殘疾人提供能力建設培訓。2016年,中國殘聯主席張海迪就任康復國際主席。資助建立康復國際非洲基金和康復國際全球殘疾人事務發展基金。

Living up to international responsibilities. China actively provides financial, technical and material support to the UN, and to relevant international disability organizations and developing countries. We have donated assistive devices for persons with disabilities to more than 10 countries including Ethiopia, Burundi and Mongolia, provided humanitarian relief to tsunami-stricken Southeast Asian countries with a focus on persons with disabilities, subscribed to the Development Fund for the International Paralympic Committee, and given capacity-building training to people with disabilities from Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies and Africa. In 2016, chairwoman of the CDPF Zhang Haidi was elected chair of Rehabilitation International (RI). China has subsidized the RI in establishing the Africa Fund and the Global Disability Development Fund.

積極推動國際殘疾人事務發展。中國是制定《殘疾人權利公約》的積極倡導者和參與者,推動將殘疾人事務納入聯合國2030年可持續發展議程,促成建立亞太經濟合作組織、亞歐會議、中國-東盟博覽會等框架下殘疾人事務合作機制,積極開展“一帶一路”殘疾人領域合作。在聯合國亞洲及太平洋經濟社會委員會(簡稱“聯合國亞太經社會”)的支持下,首倡發起“亞太殘疾人十年”活動。與聯合國亞太經社會共同主辦2013-2022亞洲及太平洋殘疾人十年中期審查高級別政府間會議,通過《北京宣言和行動計劃》。舉辦亞歐會議框架下殘疾人合作暨全球輔助器具產業發展大會。積極參加并承辦與殘疾人相關的國際研討會議、國際殘疾人藝術節、國際殘疾人職業技能競賽,多次參加國際殘奧會。

Actively advancing the international cause of persons with disabilities. China is an active advocate and participant of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. We have worked to include the cause of persons with disabilities in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We have helped to establish disability cooperation mechanisms within APEC, Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), China-Asian Expo and other frameworks. China energetically carries out cooperation along the Belt and Road to promote the cause.

With the support of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), we initiated the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities. China and the UN ESCAP jointly hosted the High-level Intergovernmental Meeting on the Midpoint Review of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities, 2013-2022, at which the Beijing Declaration and Action Plan was adopted. We hosted the ASEM High-level Meeting on Disability and Global Conference on Assistive Devices and Technology. China actively participates in and hosts international events for persons with disabilities, including seminars, art festivals, and vocational skills competitions. It has participated in the Paralympic Games many times.

殘疾人權益保障獲得國際贊譽。中國殘疾人權益保障的成就和經驗得到國際社會積極評價。2003年,時任中國殘聯主席鄧樸方獲“聯合國人權獎”,成為歷史上首獲此獎的中國人和殘疾人。2012年,中國殘聯主席張海迪獲聯合國亞太經社會“亞太殘疾人權利領袖獎”。2016年,中國舉辦紀念《殘疾人權利公約》通過十周年大會,時任聯合國秘書長潘基文出席,對中國殘疾人人權保障給予高度評價。

Winning international acclaim for our efforts to ensure the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. The international community speaks highly of China’s achievements and experience in protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. In 2003, Deng Pufang, then chairman of the CDPF, became the first Chinese and the first disabled Chinese to be awarded the United Nations Human Rights Prize. In 2012, Zhang Haidi, chairwoman of the CDPF, won the Asia-Pacific Disability Rights Champions Award from the UN ESCAP. In 2016, China hosted the 10th Anniversary Meeting of the Adoption of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Ban Ki-moon, then UN secretary-general, attended the meeting and hailed China’s efforts in protecting the rights and interests of people with disabilities.

結束語

Conclusion

中國殘疾人事業發展仍然不平衡、不充分,滯后于全國經濟社會發展總體水平。殘疾人生活狀況與殘疾人對美好生活的期待相比依然存在較大差距,反對基于殘疾的歧視還需要長期努力。充分保障殘疾人平等權益,全面促進殘疾人融合發展依然任重道遠。

The development of the programs of persons with disabilities are still unbalanced and inadequate in China, and lags behind the level of national economic and social development. There is still a big gap between the lives these people lead and lives to which they aspire, and a long-term effort will be required to fight the discrimination they face. We have a long way to go in ensuring the rights and interests of persons with disabilities, and in integrating the all-round improvement of their lives with that of wider society.

殘疾人是一個特殊困難的群體,需要全社會給予充分的尊重、關心和幫助。中國將不斷完善殘疾人權益保障機制,努力消除基于殘疾的歧視,切實尊重和保障殘疾人的人權,增進殘疾人福祉,增強殘疾人自我發展能力,推進殘疾人平等參與發展進程、平等分享發展成果。

As a group who live with special difficulties, persons with disabilities should be fully respected, cared for, and assisted in every aspect of social interaction。 China will continue to improve the mechanisms for ensuring their rights and interests – eliminating discrimination, fully respecting and guaranteeing their human rights, improving their wellbeing, enhancing their ability to better their own situation, and ensuring that they are able to participate in the country’s development process and share the ensuing gains as equals。

在以習近平同志為核心的黨中央堅強領導下,在決勝全面建成小康社會、奪取新時代中國特色社會主義偉大勝利、實現中華民族偉大復興的中國夢的新征程中,中國將把保障殘疾人權益、促進殘疾人全面發展和共同富裕作為重要使命和奮斗目標,努力開創新時代殘疾人事業發展的新局面。

Under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as the core, in our quest to secure a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, strive to realize socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, we will take disabled people’s rights and interests, their all-round development and common prosperity as an important mission and regard them as the focus of our efforts, and open up a new vista for persons with disabilities in the new era.

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