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2019年6月CATTI英語二級筆譯實務真題
作者:天之聰教育
17/06/2019

全國翻譯專業資格(水平)考試 英語二級筆譯實務

English-Chinese Translation

Translate the following two passages into English.

Passage 1

 

In 2009, Time magazine hailed School of One, an online math program piloted at three New York City public schools, as one of the year’s 50 best innovations. Each day, School of One software generated individualized math “playlists” for students who then chose the “modality” in which they wished to learn — software, a virtual teacher or a flesh-and-blood one. A different algorithm sorted teachers’ specialties and schedules to match a student’s needs. “It generates the lessons, the tests and it grades the tests,” one veteran instructor marveled. It saved salaries, too, thereby “teacher proofing” (as policy wonks say) education in a few clicks.

Although School of One made only modest improvements in students’ math scores and was adopted by only a handful of New York schools (not the 50 for which it was slated), it serves as a notable example of a pattern that Andrea Gabor, who holds the Bloomberg chair of business journalism at Baruch College/CUNY, charts in “After the Education Wars。” For more than three decades, an unlikely coalition of corporate philanthropists, educational technology entrepreneurs and public education bureaucrats has spearheaded a brand of school reform characterized by the overvaluing of technology and standardized testing and a devaluing of teachers and communities。

The trend can be traced back to a hyperbolic 1983 report, “A Nation at Risk,” issued by President Ronald Reagan’s National Commission on Excellence in Education。 Against the backdrop of an ascendant Japanese economy and consistent with President Reagan’s disdain for public education (and teachers’ unions), “A Nation at Risk” blamed America’s ineffectual schools for a “rising tide of mediocrity” that was diminishing America’s global role in a new high-tech world。

Policymakers turned their focus to public education as a matter of national security, one too important (and potentially too profitable) to entrust to educators. The notion that top-down decisions by politicians, not teachers, should determine what children need was a thread running through the bipartisan 2001 No Child Left Behind Act, the Obama administration’s Race to the Top and state-initiated Common Core standards, and the current charter-driven agenda of Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos. “Accountability” became synonymous with standardized tests, resulting in a testing juggernaut with large profits going to commercial publishing giants like Pearson.

The education wars have been demoralizing for teachers, over 17 percent of whom drop out within their first five years. No one believes that teaching to the test is good pedagogy, but what are the options when students’ future educational choices, teachers’ salaries and retention and, in some states, the fate of entire schools rest on student test scores?

In meticulous if sometimes too laborious detail, Gabor documents reform’s institutional failings. She describes the sorry turns in New York City’s testing-obsessed policies, the undermining of Michigan’s once fine public schools (spurred in part by constant pressure from the DeVos family) and the heartbreaking failure of New Orleans to remake its schools after Hurricane Katrina. The largely white city establishment bypassed the majority-black community, inviting philanthropists and the federal government to rebuild its public schools as the nation’s first citywide, all-charter system. A dozen years later, more than a third of the city’s charter schools have failed.

 

Passage 2

 

Angkor is one of the most important archaeological sites in South-East Asia。 For several centuries Angkor, was the centre of the Khmer Kingdom。 With impressive monuments, several different ancient urban plans and large water reservoirs, the site is a unique concentration of features testifying to an exceptional civilization。 The architecture and layout of the successive capitals bear witness to a high level of social order and ranking within the Khmer Empire。 Angkor is therefore a major site exemplifying cultural, religious and symbolic values, as well as containing high architectural, archaeological and artistic significance。

The park is inhabited, and many villages, some of whom the ancestors are dating back to the Angkor period are scattered throughout the park. The Angkor complex encompasses all major architectural buildings and hydrological engineering systems from the Khmer period and most of these “barays” and canals still exist today. All the individual aspects illustrate the intactness of the site very much reflecting the splendor of the cities that once were. The site integrity however, is put under dual pressures: Endogenous: exerted by more than 100,000 inhabitants distributed over 112 historic settlements scattered over the site, who constantly try to expand their dwelling areas; exogenous: related to the proximity of the town of Siem Reap, the seat of the province and a tourism hub.

Angkor is one of the largest archaeological sites in operation in the world. Tourism represents an enormous economic potential but it can also generate irreparable destructions of the tangible as well as intangible cultural heritage. Many research projects have been undertaken, since the international safeguarding program was first launched in 1993.The scientific objectives of the research (e.g. anthropological studies on socio-economic conditions) result in a better knowledge and understanding of the history of the site, and its inhabitants that constitute a rich exceptional legacy of the intangible heritage. The purpose is to associate the “intangible culture” to the enhancement of the monuments in order to sensitize the local population to the importance and necessity of its protection and preservation and assist in the development of the site as Angkor is a living heritage site where Khmer people in general, but especially the local population, are known to be particularly conservative with respect to ancestral traditions and where they adhere to a great number of archaic cultural practices that have disappeared elsewhere. Moreover, the Angkor Archaeological Park is very rich in medicinal plants, used by the local population for treatment of diseases. The plants are prepared and then brought to different temple sites for blessing by the gods. The Preah Khan temple is considered to have been a university of medicine and the NeakPoan an ancient hospital.

 

Chinese-English Translation

Translate the following two passages into English。

Passage 1

 

預計到2020年,全國60歲以上老年人口將增加到2.55億人左右,占總人口比重提升到17.8%左右;高齡老年人將增加到2900萬人左右,獨居和空巢老年人將增加到1.18億人左右。涉老法規政策系統性、協調性、針對性、可操作性有待增強;城鄉、區域老齡事業發展和養老體系建設不均衡問題突出;養老服務有效供給不足,質量效益不高,人才隊伍短缺;老齡工作體制機制不健全,社會參與不充分,基層基礎比較薄弱。

規劃提出目標,到2020年,老齡事業發展整體水平明顯提升,養老體系更加健全完善,及時應對、科學應對、綜合應對人口老齡化的社會基礎更加牢固。

城鎮職工和城鄉居民基本養老保險參保率達到90%,基本醫療保險參保率穩定在95%以上,社會保險、社會福利、社會救助等社會保障制度和公益慈善事業有效銜接,老年人的基本生活、基本醫療、基本照護等需求得到切實保障。

老齡事業發展和養老體系建設的法治化、信息化、標準化、規范化程度明顯提高。市場活力和社會創造力得到充分激發,養老服務和產品供給內容更加豐富、質量更加優良,以信用為核心的新型市場監管機制建立完善。

全社會積極應對人口老齡化、自覺支持老齡事業發展和養老體系建設的意識顯著增強,敬老養老助老社會風尚更加濃厚,老年宜居環境建設扎實推進,老年人合法權益得到有效保護,老年人參與社會發展的條件持續改善。

 

Passage 2

中國的改革發端于農村

(暫缺)

從1978年至1985年,農村經濟體制的深刻變革,為農村經濟的超常規增長和貧困人口的大幅減少提供了強勁動力。按當時標準,有50%未解決溫飽的農村人口在這期間解決了溫飽問題。按現在的扶貧標準,有超過1億農村人口在這期間擺脫了貧困。

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